Levav I, Rutz W: The WHO World Health Report 2001 new understanding--new hope. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci. 2002, 39: 50-56.
The World Health Report 2003: Shaping the Future: Burden of disease in DALYs by cause, sex, and mortality stratum in WHO regions, estimates for 2002. . 2003, World Health Organization, 160-165.
Hiroeh U, Appleby L, Mortensen PB, Dunn G: Death by homicide, suicide, and other unnatural causes in people with mental illness: a population-based study. Lancet. 2001, 358: 2110-2112. 10.1016/S0140-6736(01)07216-6.
Januzzi JL, Stern TA, Pasternak RC, DeSanctis RW: The influence of anxiety and depression on outcomes of patients with coronary artery disease. Arch Intern Med. 2000, 160: 1913-1921. 10.1001/archinte.160.13.1913.
Mental illness statistics and facts. Vol. 2009. Accessed June 29, 2009., [http://www.selfhelparticles.net/]
Janisse HC, Nedd D, Escamilla S, Nies MA: Physical activity, social support, and family structure as determinants of mood among European-American and African-American women. Women Health. 2004, 39: 101-116. 10.1300/J013v39n01_06.
Chow YW, Tsang HW: Biopsychosocial effects of qigong as a mindful exercise for people with anxiety disorders: a speculative review. J Altern Complement Med. 2007, 13: 831-839. 10.1089/acm.2007.7166.
Smith PJ, Blumenthal JA, Babyak MA, Georgiades A, Hinderliter A, Sherwood A: Effects of exercise and weight loss on depressive symptoms among men and women with hypertension. J Psychosom Res. 2007, 63: 463-469. 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2007.05.011.
Broman-Fulks JJ, Storey KM: Evaluation of a brief aerobic exercise intervention for high anxiety sensitivity. Anxiety, Stress & Coping. 2008, 21: 117-128.
Tsang HW, Chan EP, Cheung WM: Effects of mindful and non-mindful exercises on people with depression: a systematic review. Br J Clin Psychol. 2008, 47: 303-322. 10.1348/014466508X279260.
Wang C, Collet JP, Lau J: The effect of Tai Chi on health outcomes in patients with chronic conditions: a systematic review. Arch Intern Med. 2004, 164: 493-501. 10.1001/archinte.164.5.493.
Wang C: Tai Chi improves pain and functional status in adults with rheumatoid arthritis: results of a pilot single-blinded randomized controlled trial. Med Sport Sci. 2008, 52: 218-229. full_text.
Wang C, Schmid CH, Hibberd PL, Kalish R, Roubenoff R, Rones R, McAlindon T: Tai Chi is effective in treating knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum. 2009, 61: 1545-1553. 10.1002/art.24832.
Sandlund ES, Norlander T: The effects of tai chi chuan relaxation and exercise on stress responses and well-being: an overview of research. International Journal of Stress Management. 2000, 7: 139-149. 10.1023/A:1009536319034.
Dechamps A, Lafont L, Bourdel-Marchasson I: Effects of Tai Chi exercises on self-efficacy and psychological health. Eur Rev Aging Phys Act. 2007, 4: 25-32. 10.1007/s11556-007-0015-0.
Sports C: Simplified "Taijiquan". 1983, Beijing, China: China Publications Center, 2
Cox RH: Sport Psychology: Concepts and Applications. 1985, Dubuque (IA): Wm. C. Brown Publishers, 2
Biddle S, Fox KR, Boutcher SH, (eds): Physical Activity and Psychological Well-Being. 2000, New York (NY): Routledge
American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-IV-TR. 2000, American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc
Jadad AR, Moore RA, Carroll D, Jenkinson C, Reynolds DJ, Gavaghan DJ, McQuay HJ: Assessing the quality of reports of randomized clinical trials: is blinding necessary?. Control Clin Trials. 1996, 17: 1-12. 10.1016/0197-2456(95)00134-4.
Wallace BC, Schmid CH, Lau J, Trikalinos TA: Meta-Analyst: software for meta-analysis of binary, continuous and diagnostic data. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2009, 9: 80-10.1186/1471-2288-9-80.
Mack C: A theoretical model of psychosomatic illness in Blacks and an innovative treatment strategy. J Black Psychol. 1980, 7: 27-43. 10.1177/009579848000700103.
Lovibond PF, Lovibond SH: The structure of negative emotional states: comparison of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) with the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories. Behav Res Ther. 1995, 33: 335-343. 10.1016/0005-7967(94)00075-U.
McAuley E, Courneya KS: The Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale: Development and preliminary validation. J Sport Exercise Psy. 1994, 16: 163-177.
Gilmore GD, Campbell MD, Becker BL: Needs assessment strategies for health education and health promotion. 1989, Indianapolis (IN): Benchmark
Peterman AH, Cella D, Mo F, McCain N: Psychometric validation of the revised Functional Assessment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection (FAHI) quality of life instrument. Qual Life Res. 1997, 6: 572-584. 10.1023/A:1018416317546.
Horowitz M, Wilner N, Alvarez W: Impact of Event Scale: a measure of subjective stress. Psychosom Med. 1979, 41: 209-218.
Cohen S, Kamarck T, Mermelstein R: A global measure of perceived stress. J Health Soc Behav. 1983, 24: 385-396. 10.2307/2136404.
Sun WY, Dosch M, Gilmore GD, Pemberton W, Scarseth T: Effects of Tai Chi Chuan Program on Hmong American Older Adults. Educ Gerontol. 1996, 22: 161-167. 10.1080/0360127960220202.
The stress response: Always good and when it is bad. 2005, Warsaw-New York: Medical Science International
King SL, Hegadoren KM: Stress hormones: how do they measure up?. Biol Res Nurs. 2002, 4: 92-103. 10.1177/1099800402238334.
McCain NL, Gray DP, Elswick RK, Robins JW, Tuck I, Walter JM, Rausch SM, Ketchum JM: A randomized clinical trial of alternative stress management interventions in persons with HIV infection. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2008, 76: 431-441. 10.1037/0022-006X.76.3.431.
Robins JL, McCain NL, Gray DP, Elswick RK, Walter JM, McDade E: Research on psychoneuroimmunology: tai chi as a stress management approach for individuals with HIV disease. Appl Nurs Res. 2006, 19: 2-9. 10.1016/j.apnr.2005.03.002.
Fransen M, Nairn L, Winstanley J, Lam P, Edmonds J: Physical activity for osteoarthritis management: a randomized controlled clinical trial evaluating hydrotherapy or Tai Chi classes. Arthritis Rheum. 2007, 57: 407-414. 10.1002/art.22621.
Li F, Duncan TE, Duncan SC, McAuley E, Chaumeton NR, Harmer P: Enhancing the psychological well-being of elderly individuals through Tai Chi exercise: A latent growth curve analysis. Struct Equ Model. 2001, 8: 53-83. 10.1207/S15328007SEM0801_4.
Esch T, Duckstein J, Welke J, Braun V: Mind/body techniques for physiological and psychological stress reduction: stress management via Tai Chi training - a pilot study. Med Sci Monit. 2007, 13: CR488-497.
Chen X, Liu J, Qiu PX: Effect of Taijiquan exercise on mental health of middle and old aged females. J Shanghai Univ Sport. 2005, 29: 79-82.
Taylor-Piliae RE, Haskell WL, Waters CM, Froelicher ES: Change in perceived psychosocial status following a 12-week Tai Chi exercise programme. J Adv Nurs. 2006, 54: 313-329. 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2006.03809.x.
Jin P: Efficacy of Tai Chi, brisk walking, meditation, and reading in reducing mental and emotional stress. J Psychosom Res. 1992, 36: 361-370. 10.1016/0022-3999(92)90072-A.
Jin P: Changes in heart rate, noradrenaline, cortisol and mood during Tai Chi. J Psychosom Res. 1989, 33: 197-206. 10.1016/0022-3999(89)90047-0.
Wang L, Wang S: Effect of shadowboxing on the psychological factors in middle and aged people. Chin J Clin Rehabil. 2004, 8: 1128-1129.
McNair DM, Lorr M, Droppleman LF: Manual for the Profile of Mood States. 1971, San Diego (CA): Educational and Industrial Testing Service
Spielberger CD, Gorsuch RL, Lushene R, Vagg PR, Jacobb GA: Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Form Y). 1983, Palo Alto (CA): Consulting Psychologists' Press
Goyette CH, Conners CK, Ulrich RF: Normative data on revised Conners Parent and Teacher Rating Scales. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 1978, 6: 221-236. 10.1007/BF00919127.
Taylor JA: A personality scale of manifest anxiety. J Abnorm Psychol. 1953, 48: 285-290. 10.1037/h0056264.
Spielberger C: The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. 1970, Palo Alto (CA): Consulting Psychological Press
Zung WWK: A rating instrument for anxiety disorders. Psychosomatics. 1971, 12: 371-379.
Derogatis LR, Lipman RS, Covi L: SCL-90: an outpatient psychiatric rating scale--preliminary report. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1973, 9: 13-28.
Burckhardt CS, Clark SR, Bennett RM: The fibromyalgia impact questionnaire: development and validation. J Rheumatol. 1991, 18: 728-733.
Tsai JC, Wang WH, Chan P, Lin LJ, Wang CH, Tomlinson B, Hsieh MH, Yang HY, Liu JC: The beneficial effects of Tai Chi Chuan on blood pressure and lipid profile and anxiety status in a randomized controlled trial. J Altern Complement Med. 2003, 9: 747-754. 10.1089/107555303322524599.
Li J: Effect of Tai Chi on psychological health for college students. J Guangdong Educ Inst. 2004, 24: 126-128.
Chen W, Sun W: Tai Chi Chuan, an alternative form of exercise for health promotion and disease prevention for older adults in the community. Int Q Community Health Educ. 1997, 16: 333-339. 10.2190/FDPE-VVG2-VNTR-N2DK.
Taggart HM, Arslanian CL, Bae S, Singh K: Effects of T'ai Chi exercise on fibromyalgia symptoms and health-related quality of life. Orthop Nurs. 2003, 22: 353-360. 10.1097/00006416-200309000-00013.
Hernandez-Reif M, Field TM, Thimas E: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Benefits from Tai Chi. J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2001, 5: 120-123. 10.1054/jbmt.2000.0219.
Galantino ML, Shepard K, Krafft L, Laperriere A, Ducette J, Sorbello A, Barnish M, Condoluci D, Farrar JT: The effect of group aerobic exercise and t'ai chi on functional outcomes and quality of life for persons living with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J Altern Complement Med. 2005, 11: 1085-1092. 10.1089/acm.2005.11.1085.
Brown DR, Wang Y, Ward A, Ebbeling CB, Fortlage L, Puleo E, Benson H, Rippe JM: Chronic psychological effects of exercise and exercise plus cognitive strategies. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1995, 27: 765-775.
Wall RB: Tai Chi and mindfulness-based stress reduction in a Boston Public Middle School. J Pediatr Health Care. 2005, 19: 230-237. 10.1016/j.pedhc.2005.02.006.
Mills N, Allen J, Carey-Morgan S: Does Tai Chi/Qi Gong help patients with Multiple Sclerosis?. J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2000, 4: 39-48. 10.1054/jbmt.1999.0139.
Liu Y, Zhang YZ: Influence of Taiji ball play on collegiate students' mentality. J Wuhan Inst of Phys Edu. 2000, 34: 211-212.
Yang S, Long YF, Huang YX: Effects of Taiji exercise on the psychology and the functions of the autonomic nervous systems of the middle aged and elderly. Chin J Phys Med Rehabil. 2004, 26: 348-350.
Bond DS, Lyle RM, Tappe MK, Seehafer RS, D'Zurilla TJ: Moderate Aerobic Exercise, T'ai Chi, and Social Problem-Solving Ability in Relation to Psychological Stress. Int J Stress Manag. 2002, 9: 329-343. 10.1023/A:1019934417236.
Chen KM, Snyder M, Krichbaum K: Tai Chi and well-being of Taiwanese community-dwelling elders. Clin Gerontol. 2001, 24: 137-156. 10.1300/J018v24n03_12.
Long Y, Zang CL, Tang CZ: Effect of Yang style Tai Chi on sleep, mood for old adults. Occup Health. 2000, 15: 211-212.
Radloff LS: The CES-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Appl Psych Meas. 1977, 1: 385-401. 10.1177/014662167700100306.
Beck AT, Ward CH, Mendelson M, Mock J, Erbaugh J: An inventory for measuring depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1961, 4: 561-571.
Zung WW: A Self-Rating Depression Scale. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1965, 12: 63-70.
Irwin MR, Olmstead R, Oxman MN: Augmenting immune responses to varicella zoster virus in older adults: a randomized, controlled trial of Tai Chi. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2007, 55: 511-517. 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2007.01109.x.
Sattin RW, Easley KA, Wolf SL, Chen Y, Kutner MH: Reduction in fear of falling through intense tai chi exercise training in older, transitionally frail adults. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005, 53: 1168-1178. 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2005.53375.x.
Wolf SL, Sattin RW, Kutner M, O'Grady M, Greenspan AI, Gregor RJ: Intense tai chi exercise training and fall occurrences in older, transitionally frail adults: a randomized, controlled trial. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2003, 51: 1693-1701. 10.1046/j.1532-5415.2003.51552.x.
Wang C, Schmid CH, Kalish R, Yinh J, Goldenberg DL, Rones R, McAlindon T: Tai Chi is effective in treating fibromyalgia: a randomized controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum. 2009, 60: S526-
Chou KL, Lee PW, Yu EC, Macfarlane D, Cheng YH, Chan SS, Chi I: Effect of Tai Chi on depressive symptoms amongst Chinese older patients with depressive disorders: a randomized clinical trial. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2004, 19: 1105-1107. 10.1002/gps.1178.
Dechamps A, Gatta B, Bourdel-Marchasson I, Tabarin A, Roger P: Pilot study of a 10-week multidisciplinary Tai Chi intervention in sedentary obese women. Clin J Sport Med. 2009, 19: 49-53. 10.1097/JSM.0b013e318193428f.
Watson D, Clark LA, Tellegen A: Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scales. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1988, 54: 1063-1070. 10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.1993.
Salamon MJ, Conte VA: Manual for the Salamon-Conte Life Satisfaction in the Elderly Scale. 1984, Odessa (FL): Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc
Zuckerman M, Lubin B, Rinck CM: Construction of new scales for the Multiple Affect Adjective Check List. J Behav Assess. 1983, 5: 119-129. 10.1007/BF01321444.
Ross MC, Bohannon AS, Davis DC, Gurchiek L: The effects of a short-term exercise program on movement, pain, and mood in the elderly. Results of a pilot study. J Holist Nurs. 1999, 17: 139-147. 10.1177/089801019901700203.
Gibb H, Morris CT, Gleisberg J: A therapeutic programme for people with dementia. Int J Nurs Pract. 1997, 3: 191-199. 10.1111/j.1440-172X.1997.tb00099.x.
Fu CY, Wong AF, Wang YZ: The effects of Tai Chi on psychological balance. J Chin Rehabil. 1996, 11: 88-89.
Rosenberg M: Society and the adolescent self-image. 1965, Princeton (NJ): Princeton University Press
Heatherton TF, Polivy J: Development and validation of a scale for measuring state self-esteem. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1991, 60: 895-910. 10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.525.
Sonstroem RJ: Physical estimation and attraction scales: Rationale and research. Med Sci Sports. 1978, 10: 97-102.
Secord PF, Jourard SM: The appraisal of body-cathexis: body-cathexis and the self. J Consult Psychol. 1953, 17: 343-347. 10.1037/h0060689.
Mustian KM, Katula JA, Gill DL, Roscoe JA, Lang D, Murphy K: Tai Chi Chuan, health-related quality of life and self-esteem: a randomized trial with breast cancer survivors. Support Care Cancer. 2004, 12: 871-876. 10.1007/s00520-004-0682-6.
Kutner NG, Barnhart H, Wolf SL, McNeely E, Xu T: Self-report benefits of Tai Chi practice by older adults. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 1997, 52B: P242-246.
Lee L, Lee DT, Woo J: Effect of Tai Chi on state self-esteem and health-related quality of life in older Chinese residential care home residents. J Clin Nurs. 2007, 16: 1580-1582. 10.1111/j.1365-2702.2007.02061.x.
Hill K, Smith R, Fearn M, Rydberg M, Oliphant R: Physical and psychological outcomes of a supported physical activity program for older carers. J Aging Phys Act. 2007, 15: 257-271.
Conn V, Hafdahl A, Porock D, McDaniel R, Nielsen P: A meta-analysis of exercise interventions among people treated for cancer. Support Care Cancer. 2006, 14: 699-712. 10.1007/s00520-005-0905-5.
Sephton SE, Salmon P, Weissbecker I, Ulmer C, Floyd A, Hoover K, Studts JL: Mindfulness meditation alleviates depressive symptoms in women with fibromyalgia: results of a randomized clinical trial. Arthritis Rheum. 2007, 57: 77-85. 10.1002/art.22478.
Lush E, Salmon P, Floyd A, Studts JL, Weissbecker I, Sephton SE: Mindfulness meditation for symptom reduction in fibromyalgia: psychophysiological correlates. J Clin Psychol Med Settings. 2009, 16: 200-207. 10.1007/s10880-009-9153-z.
Wilson IB, Cleary PD: Linking clinical variables with health-related quality of life. A conceptual model of patient outcomes. JAMA. 1995, 273: 59-65. 10.1001/jama.273.1.59.
Yeh GY, Wang C, Wayne PM, Phillips R: Tai chi exercise for patients with cardiovascular conditions and risk factors: a systematic review. J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev. 2009, 29: 152-160.