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Table 2 Characteristics of 40 articles published in 1980-2009 on Tai Chi and psychological status

From: Tai Chi on psychological well-being: systematic review and meta-analysis

Referencea Mean age, yr Population, n Duration Intervention Frequency, style Psychological Status Measured Methodological Quality
     Tai Chi Control(s)   Randomizationb Outcome Assessors Blindedc (% dropout)d
17 Randomized Controlled Trials
Wang et al, 2009, USA 50 Individuals with FM, 60 12 wks 1 hr, 2×/wk (classical Yang style) Attention control Depression (CES-D) Y Y 10.6%
Dechamps et al, 2009, France 44 Sedentary obese women, 21 10 wks 2 hr, 1×/wk (Yang style) Exercise Program Depression (BDI) Y Y 0%
Wang, 2008, USA 50 Functional class I or II RA, 20 12 wks 1 hr, 2×/wk (classical Yang style) Attention control Depression (CES-D) Y Y 0%
Wang et al, 2008, USA 65 Elderly with symptomatic KOA, 40 12 wks 1 hr, 2×/wk (classical Yang style) Attention control Depression (CES-D) Y Y 0%
McCain et al, 2008, USA 42 Individuals with HIV infection, 252 10 wks 90 min, 1×/wk (focused short form of Tai Chi with 8 movements) 1.Cognitive -behavioral relaxation training
2.Spriritual growth
3.Wait Liste
Stress (IES, Salivary Cortisol Level)f, Mood and Emotion (FAHI) Y Y 47%
Fransen et al, 2007, Australia 70 Elderly with symptomatic hip or KOA,152 12 wks 1 hr, 2×/wk (modified 24 forms Sun style) 1.Hydrotherapy
2.Waiting Liste
Stress, Anxiety, Depression (DASS 21) Y Y 12.5%
Irwin et al, 2007, USA 70 Healthy elderly adults, 112 16 wks 40 min, 3×/wk (unspecified style) Health education Depression (BDI) Y ND 8.9%
Sattin et al, 2005, USA
Wolf et al, 2003, USA
81 Elderly transitioning to frailty, 311 48 wks 60-90 min progression, 2×/wk (6 of the 24 simplified TC forms) Wellness education Depression (CES-D) ND Y 29.9%
Galantino et al, 2005, USA (20-60) Advanced HIV/AIDS, 38 8 wks 1 hr, 2×/wk (unspecified style) 1.Aerobic exercise
2.Usual activity
Anxiety (POMS) Y ND 25.5%
Chou et al, 2004, China 73 Elderly with depression,14 12 wks 45 min, 3×/wk (18 form of Yang style) Waiting list Depression (CES-D-Chinese Version) ND Y ND
Mustian et al, 2004, USA 52 Breast cancer survivors, 21 12 wks 1 hr, 3×/wk (15 short form Yang style) Psychosocial support therapy Self-Esteem (RSE) ND ND 32.3%
Tsai et al, 2003, China 52 Healthy elderly, 76 12 wks 50 min, 3×/wk (108 postures Yang style) Sedentary life control Anxiety (STAI) IA Y 13.6%
Li et al, 2001, USA 73 Healthy elderly, 72 24 wks 1 hr, 2×/wk (classical Yang style) Waiting list Stress (SEES) Depression (CES-D) Mood and Emotion (PANAS) ND ND 26.5%
Kutner et al, 1997, USA 76 Healthy elderly 130 15 wks 1 hr, 2×/wk (10 modified forms Yang style) 1. education control
2. balance training
Self-Esteem (RSE) ND ND 35%
Sun et al, 1996, USA (60-79) Healthy elderly Hmong immigrants, 20 12 wks 2 hrs, 1×/wk for 10 sessions (unspecified style) Routine physical activity Stress (SPS, Body Temperaturef) ND ND 0%
Brown et al, 1995, USA 53 Healthy adults, 135 16 wks 45 min, 3×/wk (unspecified style--"mindful exercise") 1.moderate intensity walk
2.low intensity walk
3.low intensity walk & relaxation
4.usual lifestyle behaviors
Anxiety, Depression, Mood and Emotion (STAI, POMS, Tukey multiple comparison test, LSES, PANAS) Self-Esteem (RSE, SPES and BCS) ND ND 25%
Jin, 1992, Australia 36 Healthy adults, 96 1 hr Single 1 hr session (long form, Yang style or Wu variation of Yang style) 1.TC meditation
2.brisk walking
3.neutral reading
Stress (Salivary Cortisol Levelf) Anxiety (STAI Y-1) Mood and Emotion (POMS) ND Y ND
16 Non-Randomized Comparison Studies
Lee et al, 2007, Hong Kong, China 83 Healthy elderly, 139 26 wks 1 hr, 3×/wk (unspecified style) Usual activity Self-Esteem (SSES-Chinese Version) N ND ND
Esch et al, 2007, Germany 28 Healthy young adults, 9 14 wks 90 min, 1×/wk for 12 sessions (Yang style) Self-comparison Stress (Perceived Mental Stress (VAS), Salivary Cortisol level) f N ND 57.1%
Robins et al, 2006, USA 42 HIV disease, 59 10 wks 1 hr, 1×/wk (8 movements short form, unspecified style) Self-comparison Stress (FAHI, IES) N ND ND
Taylor-Piliae et al, 2006, USA 66 Elderly Chinese with CVD risk factors, 38 12 wks 1 hr, 3×/wk (24-posture short form, Yang style) Self-comparison Stress (PSS) Anxiety, Depression, Mood and Emotion (POMS) N ND 2.6%
Chen et al, 2005, China 54 Healthy elderly, 30 24 wks 1 hr, 4×/wk (simplified 24 forms Yang style & 42 forms TC sword) Self-comparison Stress, Anxiety (STAI, POMS) Depression, Mood and Emotion (POMS) N ND ND
Wall, 2005, USA (11-13) Healthy children, 11 5 wks 1 hr, 1×/wk (traditional segments of Yang style & MBSR) Self-comparison Anxiety (Written subjective statements) N ND ND
Li, 2004, China 20 Healthy college students, 66 24 wks 1 hr, 3×/wk (unspecified style) Self-comparison Anxiety, Depression (SCL-90) N ND ND
Taggart et al, 2003, USA 56 Individuals with FM, 21 6 wks 1 hr, 2×/wk (Yang style short form) Self-comparison Anxiety, Depression (FIQ) N ND 43.2%
Hernandez-Reif et al, 2001, USA 15 Adolescents with ADHD, 13 5 wks 30 min, 2×/wk (unspecified style) Self-comparison Anxiety, Mood and Emotion (CTRS-R) N ND ND
Mills et al, 2000, UK 48 Adults with MS, 8 8 wks 6 individual sessions (unspecified style or duration) Self-comparison Anxiety, Depression (POMS) N ND 33.3%
Ross et al, 1999, USA (68-92) Healthy elderly, 13 8 wks 1 hr, 3×/wk (unspecified style) Self-comparison Mood and Emotion (MAACL-R-composite score) N ND 23.5%
Chen & Sun, 1997, USA (50-74) Healthy adults, 28 16 wks
4th mo to 9th mo follow-up
1 hr, 2×/wk, (simplified 24 forms) 1×/mo during follow-up Routine activity Anxiety (TMAS and SAI) N ND 22.2%
Gibb et al, 1997, Australia 80 Elderly with dementia (56%) or AD patients (44%), 9 7 wks 13 sessions 2×/wk (unspecified style) Self-comparison Mood and Emotion (Biographical Self Reflection Program) N ND 10%
Fu et al, 1996, Australia 34 Healthy students & teachers, 90 1 yr 30 min, 6×/wk (simplified 24 forms) Self-comparison Mood and Emotion (Records from self- report program) N ND ND
Jin, 1989, Australia (16-75) Healthy adults with TC experience, 66 1 hr Single 1 hr session (Long Form Yang style or Wu variation of Yang style) Self-comparison Stress (Salivary Cortisol Levelf) Depression (POMS) Anxiety (STAI) Mood and Emotion (POMS) N ND ND
Mack, 1980, Australia ND Afro-American males, ND 24 wks ND Self-comparison Mood and Emotion (no test reported) N ND ND
7 Observational Studies
Chen et al, 2006, China (20-35) Healthy students & teachers, 480 0.5-8 yrs Over 2 hrs/day (24, 28, 58, 88 forms of Chen, Wu, Yang style & TC sword) Self-comparison Mood and Emotion Self-design (10 items) N Y ND
Wang & Wang, 2004, China 62 Healthy elderly, 76 >5 yrs >30 min, >3×/wk (regular TC & TC sword) 1. some activity, <30 min, <3×/wk
2. other activity, >30 min, >3×/wk
Stress (Chinese Psychological Stress Scores) N ND ND
Yang et al, 2004, China 62 Healthy elderly, and middle-aged, 373 >1 yr Regular TC (unspecified style) Routine activity Anxiety (Zung SAS) Depression (Zung SDS) N ND ND
Bond et al, 2002, USA 37 Healthy adults, 249 >6 mos Regular TC at least 20 min, 3×/wk (unspecified style) 1.sedentary
2.moderate aerobic activity
Anxiety (STAI) N ND 0.8%
Chen et al, 2001, Taiwan, China 74 Healthy elderly, 80 ≥1 yr Regular TC at least 2×/wk & 30 min/session (unspecified style) No exercise control group Anxiety, Depression, Mood and Emotion (POMS-SF) N ND ND
Liu & Zhang, 2000, China (18-20) Healthy individuals, 150 <1 yr
>1 yr
>2 yrs
Regular TC (unspecified frequency & style) General population Anxiety, Depression (Self-Rating Scale-90) N ND ND
Long et al, 2000, China 62 Healthy adults, 239 1-14 yrs Regular TC (Yang style) Routine activity Anxiety, Depression, Mood and Emotion (POMS) N ND ND
  1. Abbreviations: yr = year; n = only evaluated participants included; FM = Fibromyalgia; wk(s) = week(s); hr = hour; CES-D = Center for Epidemiology Studies Depression index; RA = Rheumatoid Arthritis; KOA = Knee Osteoarthritis; DASS 21 = Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales 21 item questionnaire; min(s) = minute(s); BDI = Beck Depression Inventory; TC = Tai Chi; HIV = Human Immunodeficiency Virus; AIDS = Autoimmune Deficiency Syndrome; POMS = Profile of Mood States; ND = no data; RSE = Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale; STAI = State-Trait Anxiety Inventory; SEES = Subjective Exercise Experience Scale; PANAS = Positive and Negative Affect Schedule; SPS = Self-Perceived Stress score; LSES = Life Satisfaction in the Elderly Scale; SPES = Sonstroem Physical Examination Scale; BCS = Body Cathexis Score; SSES = State Self-Esteem Scale; VAS = Visual Analogue Scale; FAHI = Functional Assessment of HIV Infection; IES = Impact of Events Scale; CVD = Cardiovascular Disease; PSS = Perceived Stress Scale; MBSR = Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction; SCL-90 = Symptom Checklist-90; FIQ = Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire; ADHD = Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder; CTRS-R = Conners' Teacher Rating Scale-Revised; MS = Multiple Sclerosis; MAACL-R = Multiple Affect Adjective Checklist-Revised; mo(s) = month(s); TMAS = Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale; SAI = State Anxiety Inventory; AD = Advanced Dementia; SAS = Self-Rating Anxiety Scale; SDS = Self-Rating Depression Scale.
  2. aStudies in bold are meta-analyzed
  3. bRandomization: Was the study described as randomized (this includes the use of words such as randomly, random, and randomization)? Y = The method to generate the sequence of randomization was described and it was appropriate (table of random numbers, computer generated, etc.); ND = randomization not described; IA = The method to generate the sequence of randomization was described and it was inappropriate (patients were allocated alternately, or according to date of birth, hospital number, etc.); N = non-randomized trial.
  4. cBlinding: Was the study described as blind? (Double-blinding is impractical in Tai Chi studies, our modification gave 1 point for proper single blinding of the outcome assessor.) Y = The method of double blinding was described and it was appropriate (identical placebo, active placebo, dummy, etc.); ND = blinding not described.
  5. dDropouts and Withdrawals: Was there a description of withdrawals/dropouts? ND = withdrawals/dropouts not described.
  6. eTreatment group compared to Tai Chi in meta-analysis.
  7. f Objective measure.