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Table 3 Effects of Tai Chi on psychological health (19 non-meta-analyzed studies)

From: Tai Chi on psychological well-being: systematic review and meta-analysis

Reference Control Group(s) Psychological Status Measured P-value Main Conclusions
5 Randomized Controlled Trials
Galantino et al, 2005 1.Aerobic exercise
2.Usual activity
Anxiety (POMS) 0.005 Tai Chi decreased tension-anxiety
Mustian et al, 2004 Psychosocial support therapy Self-Esteem (RSE) 0.01 Tai Chi improved self-esteem
Kutner et al, 1997 1. Education control
2.Balance training
Self-Esteem (RSE) NS Tai Chi improved self-esteem vs. exercise control and vs. education & balance training
Brown et al, 1995 1.Moderate intensity walk
2.Low intensity walk
3.Low intensity walk & relaxation
4.Usual lifestyle behaviors
Anxiety, Depression, Mood and Emotion (STAI, POMS, Tukey multiple comparison test, LSES, PANAS) Self-Esteem (RSE, SPES and BCS) <0.05 Tai Chi improved anxiety, depression, general mood and mood disturbance and negative affect (women)
    NS Tai Chi improved self-esteem in physical competence (men and women)
Jin, 1992 1.TC meditation
2.Brisk walking
3.Neutral reading
Stress (Salivary Cortisol Levela) Anxiety (STAI Y-1) Mood and Emotion (POMS) <0.005 Tai Chi reduced anxiety vs. neutral reading group
    <0.001 All groups reduced stress level and improved total mood disturbance
7 Non-Randomized Comparison Studies
Lee et al, 2007 Usual activity Self-Esteem (SSES-Chinese Version) <0.001 Tai Chi improved self-esteem
Wall, 2005 Self-comparison Anxiety (Written subjective statements) ND Students reported feeling calmer, peaceful, relaxed & experienced well-being & improved sleep
Mills et al, 2000 Self-comparison Anxiety, Depression (POMS) NS Tai Chi decreased tension-anxiety
    <0.01 Tai Chi decrease depression-dejection
Gibb et al, 1997 Self-comparison Mood and Emotion (Biographical Self Reflection Program) ND Tai Chi improved structured reminiscence with facilitated focused & insightful thinking
Fu et al, 1996 Self-comparison Mood and Emotion (Records from self- report program) ND Tai Chi decreased total mood disturbance
Jin, 1989 Self-comparison Stress (Salivary Cortisol Level) aDepression (POMS) Anxiety (STAI) Mood and Emotion (POMS) <0.01 Tai Chi decreased stress during and after Tai Chi
    <0.001 Tai Chi decreased anxiety and total mood disturbance during and after TC
    <0.05 Tai Chi decreased depression during and after Tai Chi
Mack, 1980 Self-comparison Mood and Emotion (no test reported) ND Tai Chi improved mood status
7 Observational Studies
Chen et al, 2006 Self-comparison Mood and Emotion (Self-design, 10 items) ND Tai Chi improved mood status & psychological health
Wang & Wang, 2004 1. >30 min, >3×/wk (regular Tai Chi & Tai Chi sword)
2. some activity, <30 min, <3×/wk
3. other activity, >30 min, >3×/wk
Stress (Chinese Psychological Stress Scores) <0.01 Tai Chi decreased psychological stress vs. some activity (<30 min, <3×/wk)
    NS Tai Chi decreased psychological stress vs. other activity (>30 min, >3×/wk)
Yang et al, 2004 Routine activity Anxiety (Zung SAS) Depression (Zung SDS) <0.01 Tai Chi decreased anxiety and depression scores
Bond et al, 2002 1.Sedentary
2.Moderate aerobic activity
Anxiety (STAI) <0.05 Tai Chi and moderate aerobic activity decreased state anxiety vs. sedentary group
Chen et al, 2001 No exercise control group Anxiety, Depression, Mood and Emotion (POMS-SF) 0.000 Tai Chi decreased tension-anxiety, depression-dejection and total mood disturbance
Liu & Zhang, 2000 General population Anxiety, Depression (Self-Rating Scale-90) <0.01 Tai Chi decreased anxiety and depression scales
Long et al, 2000 Routine activity Anxiety, Depression, Mood and Emotion (POMS) <0.01 Tai Chi decreased anxiety, depression scales and total mood disturbance
  1. Abbreviations: ND = no data; NS = not statistically significant; DASS 21 = Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales 21 item questionnaire; POMS = Profile of Mood States; RSE = Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale; STAI = State-Trait Anxiety Inventory; LSES = Life Satisfaction in the Elderly Scale; PANAS = Positive and Negative Affect Schedule; SPS = Self-Perceived Stress score; SPES = Sonstroem Physical Examination Scale; BCS = Body Cathexis Score; SSES = State Self-Esteem Scale; FAHI = Functional Assessment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection; SAS = Self-Rating Anxiety Scale; SDS = Self-Rating Depression Scale. aObjective measure.