Effects of Tai Chi on stress, anxiety, depression and mood*. RCT = randomized controlled trial; NRS = nonrandomized comparison study (all the meta-analyzed NRS are self-comparison studies). N = number of participants. a McCain, 2008, included only Tai Chi versus wait list control (n = 119); Fransen 2007, included only Tai Chi versus control group (n = 97); Chen & Sun 1997, included only participants in Tai Chi group as pretreatment, posttreatment (n = 18); Sattin 2005, included only clinically depressed participants in Tai Chi and control arms (n = 43). b Dechamps, 2009, used an active control compared to Tai Chi. *The magnitude of the effect size (clinical effects) indicates: 0-0.19 = negligible effect, 0.20-0.49 = small effect, 0.50-0.79 = moderate effect, 0.80+ = large effect.