Wild S, Roglic G, Green A, Sicree R, King H. Global prevalence of diabetes: estimates for the year 2000 and properties for 2030. Diabetes Care. 2004;27(5):1047–53.
Davis SN, Granner DK. Insulin oral hypoglycemic agents and the pharmacology of endocrine pancreas. In: Hardman JP, Limbird LE, Molinoff PB, Ruddon RW, Gilman AG, editors. The pharmacological basis of therapeutics. 9th ed. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc; 1996. p. 1487–518.
Wilson PW, D’Agostino RB, Parise H, Sullivan L, Meigs JB. Metabolic syndrome as a precursor of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Circulation. 2005;112(20):3066–72.
Atli T, Keven K, Avei A, Kutlay S, Turkcapar N, Varli M, et al. Oxidative stress and antioxidant status in elderly diabetes mellitus and glucose intolerance patients. Arch Gerentol Geriatr. 2004;39:269–75.
Goldberg RB. Cytokine and cytokine-like inflammation markers, endothelial dysfunction, and imbalanced coagulationin development of diabetes and its complications. J Clini Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94(9):3171–82.
My´sliwiec M, Balcerska A, Zorena K, My´sliwska J, Lipowski P, Raczy´nska K. The role of vascular endothelial growth factor, tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6 in pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2008;79(1):141–6.
Lim AKH, Tesch GH, Inflammation in diabetic nephropathy. Mediators Inflamm. 2012;2012:1–12.
Ururahy MAG, de Souza KSC, Oliveira YMC, Loureiro MB, da Silva HPV, Freire-Neto FP, et al. Association of polymorphisms in IL6 gene promoter region with type 1 diabetes and increased albumin-to-creatinine ratio. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2015;31(5):500–6. doi:10.1002/dmrr.2621.
Igoillo-Esteve M, Marselli L, Cunha DA, Ladrière L, Ortis F, Grieco FA, et al. Palmitate induces a pro-inflammatory response in human pancreatic islets that mimics CCL2 expression by beta cellsin type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia. 2010;53:1395–405.
He L, He M, LvX, Pu D, Su P, Liu Z. NF-kB binding activity and pro-inflammatory cytokines expression correlate with body mass index but not glycosylated hemoglobin in Chinese population. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2010, 90:73– 80
Tuller T, Atar S, Ruppin E, Gurevich M, Achiron A. Common and specific signatures of gene expression and protein–protein interactions in autoimmune diseases. Genes Immun. 2013;14:67–82.
Kim MJ, Ryu GR, Chung JS, Sim SS, Min DS, Rhie DJ, et al. Protective effect of epicatechin against the toxic effects of STZ on rat pancreatic islets: in vivo and in vitro. Pancreas. 2003;26:292–9.
Hectors TL, Vanparys C, van der Ven K, Martens GA, Jorens PG, Van Gaal LF, et al. Environmental pollutants and type 2 diabetes: a review of mechanisms that can disrupt beta cell function. Diabetologia. 2011;54:1273–90.
Pari L, Sankaranaryanan C. Beneficial effects of thymoquinone on hepatic key enzymes in streptozotocin-nicotianamide induced diabetic rats. Life Sci. 2009;85:830–4.
Szkudelski T. The mechanism of alloxan and streptozotocin action of β-cells of the rat pancreas. Phys research. 2001;50:537–46.
Marimoutou M, Le Sage F, Smadja J, d’Hellencourt CL, Gonthier M, Robert-Da Silva C. Antioxidant polyphenol-rich extracts from the medicinal plants Antirheaborbonica, Doratoxylonapetalum and Gouaniamauritiana protect 3T3-L1preadipocytes against H2O2. TNFα and LPS inflammatory mediators by regulating the expression of superoxide dismutase and NF-κB genes J Inflamm. 2015;12:10. doi:10.1186/s12950-015-0055-6.
Sato Y, Hotto N, Sakamoto N, Matsuoka S, Ohishi N, Yafi K. Lipid peroxide level in plasma of diabetic patient. Biochem Med. 1979;21:104–7.
Eze ED, Dawud FA, Zainab AA, Jimoh A, Malgwi IS, Isa AS. Preliminary studies of effects on vitamin C and zinc on some liver enzymes in alloxan-induced diabetic wistar rats. Asian J Med Sci. 2012;4(1):17–22.
Kim SH, Hyun SH, Choung SY. Antidiabetic effect of cinnamon extract on blood glucose in db/db mice. J Ethno pharmacol. 2006;104:119–23.
Gazioano TA, Galea G, Reddy KS. Scaling up intervention for chronic disease prevention: the evidence. Lancet. 2007;370:1939–46.
Hyson DA. A comprehensive review of apples and apple components and their relationship to human health. Adv Nutr. 2011;2:408–20.
Oszmianski J, Wolniak M, Wojodylo A, Wawer I. Comparative study of polyphenolic content and antiradical activity of cloudy and clear apple juices. J Sci Food Agric. 2007;87:573–9.
Sun J, Chu YF, Wu X, Liu RH. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of fruits. J Agric Food Chem. 2002;50:7449–54.
Siriwardhana N, Kalupahana NS, Cekanova M, LeMieux M, Greer B, Moustaid-Moussa N. Modulation of adipose tissue inflammation by bioactive food compounds. J Nutr Biochem. 2013;24:613–23.
Wang S, Moustaid-Moussa N, Chen L, Mo H, Shastri A, Su R, et al. Novel insights of dietary polyphenols and obesity. J Nutr Biochem. 2014;25:1–18.
Reagan Shaw S, Eggert D, Mukhtar H, Ahmed N. Antiproliferating effects of apple peel extract against cancer cell. Nutr Cancer. 2010;62:517–24.
Sun AY, Wang Q, Simonyi A, Sun GY. Botanical phenolics and brain health. Neuromol Med. 2008;10(4):259–74.
Singleton VL, Orthofer R, Lamuela-Raventos RM. Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of folin-ciocalteu reagent. Methods in enzymology 299 (oxidants and antioxidants, part a). San Diego: Academic Press; 1999. p. 152–78.
Allain CC, Poon LA, Chan CS, Richmon W, Fu PC. Enzymatic determination of total serum cholesterol. Clin Chem. 1974;20:470–5.
Fossati P, Prencipe L. Serum triglycerides determined calorimetrically with an enzyme that produces hydrogen peroxide. Clin Chem. 1982;28:2077–80.
Friedewaled WT, Levy RI, Fredrickson DS. Estimation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem. 1972;18:499–502.
Grove TH. Effect of reagent pH on determination of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol by precipitation with sodium phosphotungstate-magnesium. Clin Chem. 1979;25:560–4.
Ohkawa H, Ohishi N, Yagi K. Assay of lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Anal Biochem. 1979;95:351–8.
Johansson LH, Borg LAH. A spectrophotometric method for determination of catalase activity in small tissue samples. Anal Biochem. 1988;174(1):331–6.
Valentine JS, Hart PJ. Misfolded CuZnSOD and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:3617–22.
Paglia ED, Valentine WN. Studies on the quantitative and qualitative characterization of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase. J Lab Clin Med. 1967;70:158–69.
Van Der Schouw YT, Kreijkamp-Kaspers S, Peeters PH, Keinan-Boker L, Rimm EB, Grobbee DE. Prospective study on usual dietary phytoestrogen intake and cardiovascular disease risk in Western women. Circulation. 2005;111:465–71.
Boyer J, Liu RH. Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits. Nutr J. 2004;3:5.
Gerhauser C. Cancer chemopreventive potential of apples, apple juice, and apple components. Planta Med. 2008;74:1608–24.
Bagri P, Ali M, Aeri V, Bhowmilk M, Sultana S. Antidiabetic effect of punicagranatum flowers: effect on hyperlipidemia, pancreatic cells lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in experimental diabetes. Food Chem Toxicol. 2009;47:50–4.
Gomes A, Vedasiromoni JR, Das M, Sharma RM, Ganguly DK. Antihyperglycemic effect of black tea (Camellia sinensis) in rat. J Ethnopharmacol. 1995;45:223–6.
Shimizu M, Wada S, Hayashi T, Arisawa M, Ikegaya K, Ogaku S, et al. Studies on hypoglycemic constituent of Japanese tea. Ykugaku Zasshi. 1988;108:964–70.
Gupta R, Sharma AK, Sharma MC, Dobhl MP, Gupta RS. Antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of β-sitosterol in streptozotocin-induced experimental hyperglycemia. J Diabetes. 2011;3:29–37.
Goldberg RB. Lipid disorders in diabetes. Diabetes Care. 1981;4:561–72.
Bhaskar A, Kumar A. Antihyperglycemic, antioxidant and hypolipidemic effect of Punicagranatum L flower extract in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Asian Pac J trop Biomed 2012, S1764–S1769.
Peng CH, Chyau CC, Chan KC, Chan TH, Wang CJ, Huang CN. Hibiscus sabdariffa polyphenolic extract inhibits hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and glycation-oxidative stress while improving insulin resistance. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59(18):9901–9.
Gupta R, Gupta RS. Hypolipidemic activity of Pterocarpusmarsupium in streptozotocin induced diabetes. J Complement Integr Med. 2009;6:1–28.
Kakkar R, Mantha SV, Radhi J, Prasad K, Kalra J. Increased oxidative stress in rats liver and pancreas during progression of streptozotocin induced diabetes. Clin Sci. 1998;94:623–32.
Hunkar T, Aktan F, Ceylan A, Karasu C. Effects of cod liver oil on tissue antioxidant pathways in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetes rats. Cell Biochem Funct. 2002;20:297–302.
Ramos S. Effects of dietary flavonoids on apoptotic pathways related to cancer chemopreventive. J Nutr Biochem. 2007;18:427–42.
Wedick NM, Pan A, Cassidy A, Rimm EB, Sampson L, Rosner B, et al. Dietary flavonoid intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in US men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;95:925–33.
Maritim AC, Sanders RA, Watkins JB. Effects of lipoic acid on biomarkers on oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Nutr Biochem. 2003;14:288–94.
Kaleem M, Asif M, Ahmed QU, Bano B. Antidiabetic and antioxidants activity of A non squamosal extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Singapore Med J. 2006;47:670–5.
Vincent AM, Russell JW, Low P, Feldman EL. Oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of diabetes neuropathy. Endocrine Rev. 2004;25:612–28.
Avci A, Atli T, Eruder I, Murat Varli M, Devrim E, Demir Ö, et al. Effects of apple consumption on plasma and erythrocytes antioxidant parameters in elderly subjects. Exp Aging Res. 2007;33:429–37.
Ozkaya YG, Agar A, Yargicoglu P, Hacioglu G, Bilmen-Sarikçioglu S, Ozen I, et al. The effects of exercise on brain antioxidants status of diabetic rats. Diabetes Metab. 2002;28:377–84.
Wohaieb SA, Godin DV. Alterations in free radical tissue-defense mechanisms in stretozotocin induced diabetes in rat. Effects of insulin treatment. Diabetes. 1987;28:377–84.
Aliciguzel Y, Ozen I, Aslan M, Karaylacin U. Activities of xanthine oxidoreductase and antioxidant enzymes in different tissues of diabetic rats. J Lab Clin Med. 2003;42:172–7.
Huang WC, Juang SW, Liu IM, Chi TC, Cheng JT. Changes of superoxide dismutase gene expression and activity in the brain of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Neurosci Lett. 1999;275:25–8.
Johansen JS, Harris AK, Rychly DJ, Ergul A. Oxidative stress and the use of antioxidants in diabetes: linking basic science to clinical practice. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2005;4(1):5.
Gupta R, Mathur M, Bajaj VK, Katariya P, Yadav S, Kamal R, et al. Evaluation of antidiabetic and antioxidant activity of Moringaoleifera in experimental diabetes. J Diabetes. 2012;4:164–71.
Yilmaz HR, Uz E, Yucel N, Altuntas I, Ozcelik N. Protective effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in diabetic rat liver. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2004;18(4):234–8.
Pieper GM, Jordan M, Dondlinger LA, Adams MB, Roza AM. Peroxidative stress in diabetic blood vessels. Reversal by pancreatic islet transplantation. Diabetes. 1995;4:884–9.
Halliwell B, Gutteridge J. Antioxidant defense enzymes: the glutathione peroxidase family. In: free Radicals in Biology and Medicine. Oxford Scientific Publications, Oxford; 2000: p.140–46, 170–72.
Sun LL, Gao W, Zhang MM, Li C, Wang AG, Su YL, et al. Composition and antioxidant activity of the anthocyanins of the fruit of berberis heteropoda schrenk. Molecules. 2014;19:19078–96.
Rigoulet M, Yoboue E, Devin A. Mitochondrial ROS generation and its regulation: mechanisms involved in H (2) O (2) signaling. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2011;14:459–68.
Mokhtari D, Li T, Lu T, Welsh N. Effects of Imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) on human islet NF-kappaB activation and Chemokine production in vitro. PLoS One. 2011;6(9):e24831. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0024831.
Eizirik D, Mandrup-Poulsen T. A choice of death-the signal-transduction of immune-mediated beta-cell apoptosis. Diabetologia. 2001;44:2115–33.
Chaudhari N, Talwar P, Parimisetty A, Lefebvre d’Hellencourt C, Ravanan P. A molecular web: endoplasmic reticulum stress, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Front Cell Neurosci. 2014;8:1–15.
Pahl HL, Baeuerle PA. A novel signal transduction pathway from the endoplasmic reticulum to the nucleus is mediated by transcription factor NF-kappaB. EMBO J. 1995;14:2580–8.
Houstis N, Rosen E, Lander E. Reactive oxygen species have a causal role in multiple forms of insulin resistance. Nature (Lond). 2006;440:944–8.
de Ferranti S, Mozaffarian D. The perfect storm: obesity, adipocyte dysfunction, and metabolic consequences. Clin Chem. 2008;54:1–12.
Chen F, Castranova V, Shi X. New insights into the role of nuclear factor-kappa B in cell growth regulation. Am J Pathol. 2001;159(2):387–97.
Nathan C. Points of control in inflammation. Nature. 2002;420(6917):846–52.
Ing GL. The role of inflammatory cytokines in diabetes and its complications. J Periodontol. 2008;79:1527–34.
Donath MY, Shoelson SE. Type 2 diabetes as an inflammatory disease. Nat Rev Immunol. 2011;11:98–107.
Sadek KM, Shaheen H. Biochemical efficacy of vitamin D in ameliorating endocrine and metabolic disorders in diabetic rats. Pharm Biol. 2014;52(5):591–6.
Yaochite JN, Caliari-Oliveira C, Davanso MR, Carlos D, Malmegrim KC, Cardoso CR, et al. Dynamic changes of the Th17/Tc17 and regulatory T cell populations interfere in the experimental autoimmune diabetes pathogenesis. Immunobiology. 2013;218(3):338–52.
Salvamani S, Gunasekaran B, Shaharuddin NA, Ahmad SA, Shukor MY. Antiartherosclerotic effects of plant flavonoids. BioMed Res Int. 2014;2014:1–11.
Upadhyay S, Dixit M. Role of polyphenols and other phytochemicals on molecular signaling. Oxidat Med Cell Longevity. 2015;2015:1–15. Article ID 504253.
Yao WY, Zhou YF, Qian AH, Zhang YP, Qiao MM, Zhai ZK, et al. Emodin has a protective effect in cases of severe acute pancreatitis via inhibition of nuclear factor-κB activation resulting in antioxidation. Mol Med Rep. 2015;11(2):1416–20.
Yoshino K, Hara Y, Sano M, Tomita I. Antioxidative effects of black tea theaflavins and thearubigin on lipid peroxidation of liver homogenates induced by tert butyl hydroperoxide. Biol Pharm Bull. 1994;17(1):146–9.
Salah N, Miller NJ, Paganga G, Tijburg L, Bolwell GP, Rice-Evans C. Polyphenolic flavanols as scavengers of aqueous phase radicals and as chain-breaking antioxidants. Arch Bioch Biophys. 1995;322(2):339–46.
Meltem T, Seref T, Ufuk D, Mehmet O. Effects of various pressing programs and yields on the antioxidant activity, antimicrobial activity, phenolic content and colour of pomegranate juices. Food Chem. 2013;138:1810–8.
Rice-Evans AC, Miller NJ, Paganga G. Structure-antioxidant activity relationships of flavonoids and phenolic acids. Free Radic Biol Med. 1996;20:933–56.
Stoyanova S, Geuns J, Hideg E, Van den Ende W. The food additives inulin and stevioside counteract oxidative stress. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2011;62(3):207–14.
Shin DS, Kim KW, Chung HY, Yoon S, Moon JO. Effect of sinapic acid against dimethylnitrosamine-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats. Arch Pharm Res. 2013;36:608–18.