Brooks DJ: The early diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease. Ann Neurol. 1998, 44: S10-S18. 10.1002/ana.410440704.
Chase TN, Oh JD, Blanchet PJ: Neostriatal mechanisms in Parkinson’s disease. Neurology. 1998, 51: S30-S35.
Chung V, Liu L, Bian Z, Zhao Z, Leuk Fong W, Kum WF, Gao J, Li M: Efficacy and safety of herbal medicines for idiopathic Parkinson’s disease: a systematic review. Movement disorders. 2006, 21: 1709-1715. 10.1002/mds.21008.
Bido S, Marti M, Morari M: Amantadine attenuates levodopa-induced dyskinesia in mice and rats preventing the accompanying rise in nigral GABA levels. J Neurochem. 2011, 118: 1043-1055. 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2011.07376.x.
Leentjens AF: The role of dopamine agonists in the treatment of depression in patients with Parkinson’s disease: a systematic review. Drugs. 2011, 71: 273-286. 10.2165/11585380-000000000-00000.
Ahlskog JE, Muenter MD: Frequency of levodopa-related dyskinesias and motor fluctuations as estimated from the cumulative literature. Movement disorders. 2001, 16: 448-458. 10.1002/mds.1090.
Blandini F, Armentero MT: New pharmacological avenues for the treatment of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias in Parkinson’s disease: targeting glutamate and adenosine receptors. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2012, 21: 153-168. 10.1517/13543784.2012.651457.
Muller T, Russ H: Levodopa, motor fluctuations and dyskinesia in Parkinson’s disease. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2005, 7: 1715-1730.
Chapuis S, Ouchchane L, Metz O, Gerbaud L, Durif F: Impact of the motor complications of Parkinson’s disease on the quality of life. Movement disorders. 2005, 20: 224-230. 10.1002/mds.20279.
Fabbrini G, Brotchie JM, Grandas F, Nomoto M, Goetz CG: Levodopa-induced dyskinesias. Movement disorders. 2007, 22: 1379-1389. 10.1002/mds.21475.
Meissner WG, Frasier M, Gasser T, Goetz CG, Lozano A, Piccini P, Obeso JA, Rascol O, Schapira A, Voon V, Weiner DM, Tison F, Bezard E: Priorities in Parkinson’s disease research. Nature reviews. Drug discovery. 2011, 10: 377-393.
Sarchielli P, Presciutti O, Alberti A, Tarducci R, Gobbi G, Galletti F, Costa C, Eusebi P, Calabresi P: A 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy study in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Eur J Neurol. 2008, 15: 1058-1064. 10.1111/j.1468-1331.2008.02244.x.
Lundblad M, Usiello A, Carta M, Hakansson K, Fisone G, Cenci MA: Pharmacological validation of a mouse model of l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia. Experimental neurology. 2005, 194: 66-75. 10.1016/j.expneurol.2005.02.002.
Rascol O, Brooks DJ, Korczyn AD, De Deyn PP, Clarke CE, Lang AE: A five-year study of the incidence of dyskinesia in patients with early Parkinson’s disease who were treated with ropinirole or levodopa. N Engl J Med. 2000, 342: 1484-1491. 10.1056/NEJM200005183422004.
Chase TN, Oh JD: Striatal dopamine- and glutamate-mediated dysregulation in experimental parkinsonism. Trends in neurosciences. 2000, 23: S86-S91.
Rylander D, Recchia A, Mela F, Dekundy A, Danysz W, Cenci MA: Pharmacological modulation of glutamate transmission in a rat model of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia: effects on motor behavior and striatal nuclear signaling. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2009, 330: 227-235. 10.1124/jpet.108.150425.
Olanow CW, Obeso JA: Pulsatile stimulation of dopamine receptors and levodopa-induced motor complications in Parkinson’s disease: implications for the early use of COMT inhibitors. Neurology. 2000, 55: S72-S77.
Li M, Hu J, Li G, Xie L: The antagonism of rhizoma gastrodiae to lead-induced damage of hippocampus in rats. Zhonghua lao dong wei sheng zhi ye bing za zhi. 2002, 20: 331-333.
Liu ZH, Hu HT, Feng GF, Zhao ZY, Mao NY: Protective effects of gastrodin on the cellular model of Alzheimer’s disease induced by Abeta25-35. Sichuan da xue xue bao. 2005, 36: 537-540.
May BH, Lit M, Xue CC, Yang AW, Zhang AL, Owens MD, Head R, Cobiac L, Li CG, Hugel H, Story DF: Herbal medicine for dementia: a systematic review. Phytotherapy research. 2009, 23: 447-459. 10.1002/ptr.2656.
Lee YS, Ha JH, Yong CS, Lee DU, Huh K, Kang YS, Lee SH, Jung MW, Kim JA: Inhibitory effects of constituents of Gastrodia elata Bl. on glutamate-induced apoptosis in IMR-32 human neuroblastoma cells. Arch Pharm Res. 1999, 22: 404-409. 10.1007/BF02979066.
Kim HJ, Moon KD, Oh SY, Kim SP, Lee SR: Ether fraction of methanol extracts of Gastrodia elata, a traditional medicinal herb, protects against kainic acid-induced neuronal damage in the mouse hippocampus. Neuroscience letters. 2001, 314: 65-68. 10.1016/S0304-3940(01)02296-0.
Kumar H, Kim IS, More SV, Kim BW, Bahk YY, Choi DK: Gastrodin protects apoptotic dopaminergic neurons in a toxin-induced Parkinson’s disease model. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013, 2013: 514095-
Kim HJ, Lee SR, Moon KD: Ether fraction of methanol extracts of Gastrodia elata, medicinal herb protects against neuronal cell damage after transient global ischemia in gerbils. Phytother Res. 2003, 17: 909-912. 10.1002/ptr.1246.
Xiao YQ, Li L, You XL: Studies on chemical constituents of effective part of Gastrodia elata. Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi. 2002, 27: 35-36.
An H, Kim IS, Koppula S, Kim BW, Park PJ, Lim BO, Choi WS, Lee KH, Choi DK: Protective effects of Gastrodia elata Blume on MPP + −induced cytotoxicity in human dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010, 130: 290-298. 10.1016/j.jep.2010.05.006.
Santini E, Valjent E, Usiello A, Carta M, Borgkvist A, Girault JA, Herve D, Greengard P, Fisone G: Critical involvement of cAMP/DARPP-32 and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase signaling in L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia. J Neurosci. 2007, 27: 6995-7005. 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0852-07.2007.
Calabresi P, Giacomini P, Centonze D, Bernardi G: Levodopa-induced dyskinesia: a pathological form of striatal synaptic plasticity?. Ann Neurol. 2000, 47: S60-S68.
Cenci MA, Lee CS, Bjorklund A: L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in the rat is associated with striatal overexpression of prodynorphin- and glutamic acid decarboxylase mRNA. Eur J Neurosci. 1998, 10: 2694-2706. 10.1046/j.1460-9568.1998.00285.x.
Lundblad M, Picconi B, Lindgren H, Cenci MA: A model of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned mice: relation to motor and cellular parameters of nigrostriatal function. Neurobiol Dis. 2004, 16: 110-123. 10.1016/j.nbd.2004.01.007.
Andersson M, Hilbertson A, Cenci MA: Striatal fosB expression is causally linked with l-DOPA-induced abnormal involuntary movements and the associated upregulation of striatal prodynorphin mRNA in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease. Neurobiol Dis. 1999, 6: 461-474. 10.1006/nbdi.1999.0259.
Santini E, Alcacer C, Cacciatore S, Heiman M, Herve D, Greengard P, Girault JA, Valjent E, Fisone G: L-DOPA activates ERK signaling and phosphorylates histone H3 in the striatonigral medium spiny neurons of hemiparkinsonian mice. J Neurochem. 2009, 108: 621-633. 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2008.05831.x.
Ha JH, Shin SM, Lee SK, Kim JS, Shin US, Huh K, Kim JA, Yong CS, Lee NJ, Lee DU: In vitro effects of hydroxybenzaldehydes from Gastrodia elata and their analogues on GABAergic neurotransmission, and a structure-activity correlation. Planta medica. 2001, 67: 877-880. 10.1055/s-2001-18844.
Liu J, Mori A: Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of Gastrodia elata Bl. and Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq.) Jacks. Neuropharmacology. 1992, 31: 1287-1298. 10.1016/0028-3908(92)90058-W.
Ahn EK, Jeon HJ, Lim EJ, Jung HJ, Park EH: Anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic activities of Gastrodia elata Blume. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007, 110: 476-482. 10.1016/j.jep.2006.10.006.
Hu K, Jeong JH: A convergent synthetic study of biologically active benzofuran derivatives. Arch Pharm Res. 2006, 29: 476-478. 10.1007/BF02969419.
Kim BW, Koppula S, Kim JW, Lim HW, Hwang JW, Kim IS, Park PJ, Choi DK: Modulation of LPS-stimulated neuroinflammation in BV-2 microglia by Gastrodia elata: 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol is the bioactive candidate. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012, 139: 549-557. 10.1016/j.jep.2011.11.048.
Park S, da Kim S, Kang S: Gastrodia elata Blume water extracts improve insulin resistance by decreasing body fat in diet-induced obese rats: vanillin and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde are the bioactive candidates. Eur J Nutr. 2011, 50: 107-118. 10.1007/s00394-010-0120-0.
Niu Q, Niu P, He S: Effect of gastrodia elata on learning and memory impairment induced by aluminum in rat. Wei sheng yan jiu. 2004, 33: 45-48.
Wu CR, Hsieh MT, Huang SC, Peng WH, Chang YS, Chen CF: Effects of Gastrodia elata and its active constituents on scopolamine-induced amnesia in rats. Planta medica. 1996, 62: 317-321. 10.1055/s-2006-957892.
Dai JN, Zong Y, Zhong LM, Li YM, Zhang W, Bian LG, Ai QL, Liu YD, Sun J, Lu D: Gastrodin inhibits expression of inducible NO synthase, cyclooxygenase-2 and proinflammatory cytokines in cultured LPS-stimulated microglia via MAPK pathways. PloS one. 2011, 6: e21891-10.1371/journal.pone.0021891.
Yang P, Han Y, Gui L, Sun J, Chen YL, Song R, Guo JZ, Xie YN, Lu D, Sun L: Gastrodin attenuation of the inflammatory response in H9c2 cardiomyocytes involves inhibition of NF-kappaB and MAPKs activation via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling. Biochemical pharmacology. 2013, 85: 1124-1133. 10.1016/j.bcp.2013.01.020.
Benturquia N, Courtin C, Noble F, Marie-Claire C: Involvement of D1 dopamine receptor in MDMA-induced locomotor activity and striatal gene expression in mice. Brain research. 2008, 1211: 1-5.