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Table 5 Effect of plant extracts on kidney homogenate constituents of phosphate, oxalate and calcium following the administrations of curative test on the 28th day at 200 mg/kg dose. The mixed extract = the combination of A. aspera, S. punctata and R. abyssinicus extracts (1: 1:1 ratio). Data were presented as mean ± SD for 6 rats in each group (n = 6). Comparisons between means were made against Group I (vehicle control) and Group II (lithiatic control). *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01,***p < 0.001 indicate significant changes in comparison with the group I (vehicle control), #p < 0.05, ##p < 0.01, ###p < 0.001 indicate significant changes in comparison with group II (lithiatic control)

From: Evaluations of the curative efficacy of G. fruticosus solvent extracts in experimentally induced nephrolithiatic Wistar male rats

Groups Treatments Kidney homogenates (mg/dl)
Phosphate Oxalate Calcium
I. Normal control (DH2O) 3.84 ± 1.02 1.45 ± 0.30 2.12 ± 1.30
II. Lithiatic control 9.44 ± 2.31 7.67 ± 2.25 9.50 ± 2.47
III. K-Cit (2.5 g/kg) 5.13 ± 1.33# 3.33 ± 0.87*# 3.33 ± 2.24#
IV. Cystone (750 mg/kg) 7.05 ± 2.00 5.27 ± 1.42** 4.22 ± 2.10#
V. G. fruticosus PET extract 8.23 ± 2.70* 4.52 ± 0.56*# 5.03 ± 1.98
VI. G. fruticosus Chl. extract 7.50 ± 2.08 4.09 ± 0.78*# 5.11 ± 1.69
VII. G. fruticosus EtOAc extract 3.89 ± 0.42# 2.10 ± 0.87## 7.05 ± 2.56*
VIII. G. fruticosus BuOH extract 6.11 ± 1.55 3.31 ± 0.32*# 7.21 ± 2.37*
IX. G. fruticosus aq. fraction 4.52 ± 0.63# 5.43 ± 1.05** 5.53 ± 1.88*