- Research article
- Open Access
An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used to treat skin diseases in northern Pakistan
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine volume 19, Article number: 210 (2019)
Skin diseases are a major health concern especially in association with human immune deficiency syndrome and acquired an immune deficiency. The aim of this study was to document the ethnomedicinal information of plants used to treat skin diseases in Northern Pakistan. This is the first quantitative ethnobotanical study of therapeutic herbs utilized by the indigenous people of Northern Pakistan for skin diseases.
Interviews were taken to obtain information from 180 participants. Quantitative methods including fidelity level (FL), Frequency of citation (FC), Use-value (UV), Jaccard indices (JI), Family importance value (FIV), Relative frequency of citation (RFC) and Chi-square test were applied. Medicinal plants uses are also compared with 50 national and international publications.
In this study, we recorded 106 plant species belonged to 56 floral families for treatment of skin ailments. The dominant life form reported was herb while the preferred method of utilization was powder, along with leaf as the most used plant part. RFC ranges from 0.07 to 0.25% whereas the highest FIV was recorded for family Pteridaceae. FL values range from 36.8 to 100%. The study reported 88% of new plant reports for the treatment of skin diseases.
The present study revealed the importance of several plants used to treat skin diseases by the local communities of Northern Pakistan. The available literature supported the evidence of plant dermatological properties. Plants having high UV and RFC can be considered for further scientific analysis. There is dire need to create awareness among local, government and scientific communities for the preservation of medicinal species and ethnomedicinal knowledge in Northern Pakistan.
Skin diseases present a major health concern worldwide . Skin problems significantly affect the quality of health and difficult to treat due to persistence . The skin is an external organ covering the body and serves many important functions including percutaneous absorption, organ protection, fluid preservation, body shape maintenance, temperature regulation and eliminating toxins from the body by sweat excretion . The etiology of skin diseases display a close connection between an individual’s health and socio-cultural environment . Skin diseases affect people of all age groups and gender . Skin ailments or infectious dermatological dermatological diseases are particularly present in tropical areas of Globe . Skin diseases constitute about 34% of all the ailments and supposed to be the most common disease among rural people . Skin diseases have gained attention in recent years due to the association with AIDS/HIV. Greater than 90% of infectious persons of HIV developed mucosal and skin problems at certain phase of disease . Skin ailments such as boils, itching, ringworm, skin disorders, leprosy, wound, dermatitis, eczema, scabies, skin allergy swelling and psoriasis are caused by a variety of microorganisms . In previous reports, it was found that wound healing, eczema, dermatitis, fungal diseases, pyoderma, scabies, and skin allergies are the largest group of skin diseases that occur in most of the countries. Most of the plants used for treating skin disorders possibly have other additional properties like anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-viral, cicatrizant, hemostatic, analgesic effects that require pharmacological confirmation . In literature, various plants have been reported to be used against skin infections like wound healing, scabies, swellings, boils, etc. [9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16].
In Pakistan, the number of patients suffering from skin diseases increases every year. The majority suffer from psoriasis, followed by pigment disorder, eczema, urticaria and fungal infection . Climatic conditions like hot and humid weather intensify the prevalence of skin disorders. Although the mortality for skin infection is relatively low, the infection affects the quality of life. Modern skin therapies depend on the cause of the ailment. A skin disease caused by fungal and bacterial infection is medicated using antibiotics such as tolnaftate, clotrimazole, and gentamicin. It is believed that modern therapies have many disadvantages like antibiotic resistance, allergic and adverse reactions in some patients . Modern medicines are very expensive with costly treatments so an alternative approach such as herbal medication in practiced.
Ethno-medicinal studies showed that herbal medicine is an alternative therapy for treatment and control of skin ailments . Herbal anti-skin medicines have many useful properties including low side effects and cost treatment with high significant efficacy [20, 21]. Medicinal flora have shown a pivotal part in management of dermatological conditions [11, 22], particularly communities in developing countries local communities depend on traditional medicine for their health care . The World Health Organization has a deep interest in the documentation of medicinal plant knowledge from from different areas of globe . Currently, the Ministry of Public Health of Pakistan is promoting the usage of therapeutic herbs in health maintenance system .
In Pakistan, few previous reports exist the usage of therapeutic flora in skin care . Therapeutic flora usage for treatment of skin ailments are documented in the literature , but, no specific study exists treatment of skin diseases. Various medicinal plants are also reported worldwide usage for the cure of skin disorders [7, 27,28,29,30]. The ethnobotanical literature on medicinal usage of flora for various ailments in Pakistan were mentioned in literature [31,32,33,34,35,36,37], but no systematic ethnomedicinal study has specifically focused on skin problems in the tribal areas of Northern Pakistan.
The objective of this research work is to document and examine the diversity of therapeutic flora used for treating the skin diseases in Northern Pakistan. This research will facilitate future scientific authentication through antimicrobial, pharmacological and phytochemical studies.
Description of study area
Northern Pakistan is home to the world's largest peaks and high mountain ranges i.e., Karakorum, Alai Ranges, Kunlun, Hindukush and Tien Shan . Its topography differs from rock parts in North to green plains and forest in South. These areas are rich in floral variation of therapeutic plant species . This area includes Hazara division, Swat valley, Mansehra, Kaghan and some tribal areas of Northern parts (Fig.1). The area is located at 72°35’to - 73°31′E and 33°50′-to 34°23′ N. The province borders Afghanistan to North Western side, Kashmir to East Punjab Islamabad capital territory to East and FATA to South. The average temperature recorded in the past was minimum in January as 1.7 °C while the mean maximum was 32.41 °C in June . The average annual rainfall is about 1125 mm. The major tribes residing in the area include Khattak, Yusufzai, Marwat, Shinwari, Afridi, Orakzai, Mahsud, Mohmand, Abbassies, Wazir, Tareen, Mashwani, Jadoon, Tanolis, Awans, Sardars, Sheikhs and Qureshi . Northern Pakistan is a hilly area and the cultivated land is not enough for sustenance . Medicinal plant collection and other non-timber forest products provide an additional source of income (12%), while daily salaries and wages constitute 20%, transmittals from other areas of Pakistan and overseas (17%), and other occupations (10%) . About 80% population in Pakistan is rural households and has easy access to medicinal plants.
The present study was carefully designed with strict compliance of bio-ethics and approved by the Institutional Bioethics Committee (IBC) of Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan under the approval No PT-5695. The rules for plant collection and identification were followed according to National Biodiversity Action Plan as per the guidelines of Herbarium of Pakistan (ISL), Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan. Prior to data collection, a brief group discussion was held with the participants for agreement, to tell the objectives of research and to guarantee the safety of indigenous knowledge. These practices clear the aim of research and develop confidence in participants so they give reliable knowledge without any hesitation. Initially, 200 participants were selected of them were but among them, 20 were hesitant in providing knowledge leaving a total of 180 participants for data collection. While data documentation, all participants were contacted 3 times for the authentication of the knowledge given by informants. Any deviance of the informants idea from authentic knowledge given, the information was excluded and regarded inapplicable. The data quality was ensured through proper training of data collectors, pointing out missing information, duplication of the material, and careful analysis. The data quality was ensured through proper training of data collectors, pointing out missing information, duplication of the material, and careful analysis. The few plants in the MS are listed on the IUCN red list such as Taxus wallichiana (plant #104) is endangered, Colubrina oppositifolia (#84) is critical, Aconitum chasmanthum (#79) is critical and Plantago lanceolata (#69) is vulnerable. All plants listed in this study are authorized by the biodiversity action plan and duly authenticate by ethical committee of Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad and then included in the MS. The native communities of the area have knowledge about sustainable use of these plants and use of these plants with care (criteria of IUCN) so that they don’t get vanished and are save for next generation.
Field study and data collection
This research work focused on the use of traditional plant resources with specific reference to the treatment of skin ailments. Fieldwork was performed between April 2015 to August 2015. Collectively, 180 participants were interviewed after receiving their prior informed consent. Data was collected from native indigenous health practitioners (THPs) and local participants (female and males of altered groups of age, experiences and education levels). During field surveys, face to face interviews and semi-structured interviews were also conducted. Guided field walks were also conducted . The questionnaire used for data collection includes two parts, (i) part dealing with the demographic data of participants, and (ii) part focusing on information about plants´ local name, mode of administration, preparation and part of the plant used against skin diseases. Documentation of data while field survey was evaluated and organized by usage of quantitative analysis. In addition, data was compared with previously published research articles on ethnomedicinal uses of plants to validate the plants with higher medicinal values for skin diseases.
Collection identification and preservation
In the current study, therapeutic flora documented by participants was identified by their common names . The plant specimens were further authenticated by a Plant Taxonomist, Professor Mir Ajab Khan (Ph.D. in Plant Systematics) at the Herbarium of Pakistan (ISL), QAU Islamabad, Pakistan. All the plants species were further authenticated through available literature  and compared with herbarium specimens. In addition, some plants used by the local healers were photographed. Voucher plant specimens were collected in duplicate. Herbarium specimens were deposited in Herbarium of Pakistan (ISL, Registered at Index Herbarium http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/ih/) and voucher specimens are presented in.
Quantitative data analysis
Use value (UV)
Use value is calculated to assess all probable usage of plant species. UV of plants gives a quantitative analysis for plant citation. UV tells the relative importance of plant flora recognized locally. UV was analysed according to .
Where u is the total participants stating various uses of a plant and N is whole number of participants. UV is usually (1) if the number of usages is greater, and (0) if the usage report for plants species is less. UV not deliver data on multiple or single usage of plant flora is considerably low. UV does not deliver any data on the single or multiple uses of plant species.
Frequency of citation (FC) and relative frequency of citation (RFC)
FC is used for evaluating the most prefered plants or more used plant species. RFC was analysed to intricate the knowledge of traditional flora about usage of therapeutic flora in the study site.
Where RFC is denoted by relative frequency citation, FC (Frequency of Citation) is the number of participants who stated the plant flora and N is whole number of informants .
Fidelity level (FL)
To analyse most prefered plant usage for the cure of a specific disease, we used (FL) index adopted by . FFL indicates the importance of one species over other, to cure specific diseases. Fidelity level shows the percentage of participants who reported the use of specific plant species for a particular disease (Skin disease).
Where, Np is the number of participants that declare the usage of species for definite disease, and N is total participants that use plants as a medicines for the treatment of any given ailment .
Jaccard index (JI)
Jaccard index (JI) is evaluated by comparison of formarly published studies from local, regional and global level by analysing the percentage of cited plant species and medicinal usage, by using the following formula:
where “a” is the number of species of area A, “b” is number of species of area B, and “c” is number of species common in A and B .
The knowledge of medicinal species distributed between male and female participants between two age categories (36–46 and > 60 years of age) was comparatively analyzed by using Chi-square.
Socio-demographic characteristics of participants
Collectively 180 participants were selected from several regions of Northern Pakistan. The majority of professional healers were males (61%). Based on age, the participants were divided into five groups (36–46 (11%), 47–57 (19%), 58–68 (24%), 69–79 (34%) and above 80 years (12%). Participants constitute 24 students, 41 herbalists, 32 physicians, 12 retirees, 46 housewives, 12 professionals, and 13 others. A large number (44%) of local healers also used allopathic medicines. Regarding education, 30% of the participants were illiterate, 35% of the traditional healers had attended primary school, 18% secondary education level, 9% tertiary education and only 8% of participants had attended universities. The majority of professional healers (43%) in the study area were married, followed by single (37%), widowed (16%) and 4% divorced Most of the participants were living in rural areas (88%) and only 12% living in urban areas (Table 1).
Diversity of medicinal plants used
Therapeutic flora, used to cure skin diseases in Northern Pakistan are documented in Table 2. The study reported 106 medicinal plant species. The main growth habit of the plant flora was herbs 62%, followed by shrubs (20%) and trees (18%). The plants belonged to 56 families. Asteraceae (10 species) and Lamiaceae (7 species) represent the most dominant family in this study site (Fig. 2). The other important families in the study included Polygonaceae (6 species), then Ranunculaceae and Rosaceae (5 species each). The least species (1%) were observed in 37 families (Fig. 2).
Plant parts used in herbal medicines
Leaves (62%) were reported to be the most frequently used plant part to prepare herbal medicine either by singly or mixes by other plant parts. Leaves were followed by roots (19 species), flowers (18 species), seeds (15 species), fruit (11 species), whole plant (8 species) and stem, bulb, latex, aerial parts contributed (1 species each) (Fig.3). A schematic representation of part used of medicinal plants is shown in (Additional file 1).
Mode of preparation
Mode of administration for herbal remedies used for treating skin diseases include decoction, infusion, powder, poultice, raw, extract, juice, cooked, paste and oil. Among various preparation methods, the powder was the most frequently used (23 species), followed by paste (19 species), decoction (16 species), extract (14 species), raw and poultice (each has 8 species) (Fig. 4). A schematic representation of the mode of utilization of medicinal plants is shown in (Additional file 1).
Used categories in skin diseases
In this study, the skin diseases were assembled into 13 groups. The skin category includes pimples, mumps, measles, wound healing, boils, skin burns, abscesses, inflammation, skin irritation, allergy, burning sensation, skin cleanser and sensation (Table 2). In this study, the maximum figure of plant was used in handling for wound healing (34 species) followed by skin burn (11 species). Other important skin ailments treated by plant flora in the area were boils and pimples (9 species). The lowest citation reports (1%) were recorded for mumps, measles and skin irritations (Fig. 5).
Value of medicinal plant
In addition to the use of questionnaires, various analytical tools were required so it could be possible to do quantification of data by cross verification of indigenous information to treat skin diseases in the study site. Species with the highest use value was Pisum sativum (Fabaceae) (UV 0.143) (Table 2). Other important plants were Cynodon dactylon (UV 0.125) reported by 16 participants and Bergenia ligulata reported by 17 participants (UV 0.118) (Table 2). Adiantum venustum had very low use value (UV 0.021).
Relative frequency of citation (RFC %)
The RFC represented the prominent species used for skin related diseases based on the ratio between the number of participants (FC) for a plants and the overall number of participants in the research study. RFC ranged from 0.07 to 0.25 and we classified all species into 3 groups: RFC 0.07 to 0.12 (39 species); RFC, 0.13 to 0.18 (37 species); RFC 0.19 to 0.27 (30 species) (Table 2). According to pharmacological and ethnobotanical records, the majority of plants in the first group were reported with high medicinal potential. The highest values were recorded for Adiantum venustum (0.27) used in the form of paste for wound healing properties, Artemisia fragrans (0.25) used in the treatment of boils, similarly Aconitum chasmanthum (0.24) used as a decoction for treatment of mumps and measles. Other high RFC species were Trigonella foenum-graecum, Verbascum thapsus, Saussurea heteromala, Rosa chinensis, Gerbera gossypina, Helianthus annuus and Aquilegia pubiflora.
Fidelity level (FL)
FL value is calculated for handling specific ailment in this study site. We examined the disease categories to focus the most significant medicinal plant species in each category of skin ailment in terms of FL. It is analyzed for the plant species which were used to cure the most commonly reported category for high FL values 100% and lower FL value 36.8%. FL values were classified into four FL classes (Table 2). FL value of class one was 100% (2 species), class two 97 to 89% (18 species), class three 88 to 79% (44 species), class four 78 to 69% (31 species), class five 68 to 33% (11 species). In the present study, Salix babylonica and Sonchus asper had an FL of 100%, Prunus armeniaca 96.8%, and Momordica charantia 94.74%. Lowest values were found for Pinus wallichiana (44.4) and Galium abaujense (36.8).
Family importance value (FIV)
The analysis of family importance value reported to Pteridaceae has the maximum FIV (26.6%), followed by Fabaceae (22.2%), Scrophulariaceae, Thymelaeaceae and Caryophyllaceae (21.6). Lowest values were observed for Cyperaceae 7.7 (Fig.6). These medicinal plants are explored equally by all the communities on a regular basis and the folk knowledge is constant.
Jaccard index (JI)
A comparison of medicinal uses of plants was made by analyzing 50 research papers from aligned countries (Table 2). The review of the literature showed that 106 reported medicinal plant species share similar uses fluctuated from 0%  to 13.2% while nonsimilar usage from 3.77  to 0% . The lowest degree of similarity was found in the studies reported in India and South Africa on skin diseases by [5, 49,50,51] (Table 3). The comparison was based on skin disease reports in several studies, presenting the usage of therapeutic plants for the cure of skin infections in local communities.
The male participants reported more medicinal plants than women, and it could be stated that males possess more knowledge about the use of medicinal plants than women (Additional file 1). The chi-square on the number of species of plants reported by the two age categories showed important differences. Table 4 represents the median for a number of medicinal species reported by the participants 36–46 and > 46 years of age. Scattering of knowledge was observed in different age groups. The significantly higher average number of medicinal plants (p < 0.05) were mentioned by participants of 69 to 79 years (37.88) for men and (24.1) for women, respectively. There were no significant variations (χ2 = 13.45; P > 0.05) in the < 36 year age group. Analysis of variance (p = 0.05) was used to elucidate the effect of gender, age, and gender to gender interaction on the traditional knowledge of plants in society.
Previous literature on phytochemicals, pharmacological activities, and toxicity
A large number of plants stated in this study possess skin cure possessions and might have compound that are indirectly or directly active against parasites. These compounds are known as secondary metabolic compounds. Medicinal plants used for skin diseases were investigated for preliminary in vitro studies, essential phytochemicals and toxicity from the previous studies. Some of the plant species used for skin ailments have been reported for numerous secondary metabolites which show the significance of the plants in traditional remedies (Table 4).
Preliminary in vitro screening of some of the most mentioned plants have been mentioned to validate the findings of the present study (Table 5). In spite of the wide application of active metabolic compounds for humans; they also have a health hazardous effect because of much toxins. These substances not only hamper with the growth of parasite also have lethal effects on mammalian cells (Additional file 1: Table S1). It is, therefore, important to validate the toxic effects of medicinal plant products in relation to their anti-nutritional and other side effects.
Comparison with other studies in neighbouring regions
In the present study, some plants were used alone to treat the particular diseases, while in some cases plant parts were mixed to treat diseases. This present study reported 63 novel plants for skin diseases from Northern Pakistan, including Ajuga integrifolia, Anaphalis chitralensis, Capparis himalayensis, Gnaphalium affine, Isodon rugosus, Tamarix aphylla, Nepeta clarkei, Launaea nudicaulis, Valeriana jatamansi (Table 2).
This study was carried out in the native groups of Northern Pakistan. People use medications for the cure of several diseases. Generally the medicinal plants are used in village parts of the area. The majority of professional healers in this study were males, this finding is similar to the literature . According to an estimate, 84% of the rural population relies on herbal traditional medicinal plants . Different origins of the medicinal plant knowledge were recorded. The inherited knowledge of medicinal plants is transferred through orally a cultural practice common in the rural areas in addition to the divine revelation. Most people inherit traditional knowledge from their elders that passed generation to generation .
The most dominant life form uses in the study was herbs. Herbs are easily available and collected from roadsides and farmlands [293,294,295]. Asteraceae was the most preferred family used. Previous work  also reported Asteraceae (6 species), Lamiaceae (6 species) and Fabaceae (5 species) with large figure of medicinal flora. There seems to be a tendency for a few families of plants to stand out in any pharmacopeia . These plant families have been reported with high pharmacological, organoleptic and pharmaceutical properties . The fewer species were observed in 37 families that are similar to previous studies [298, 299].
Among the reported plant part leaves were the most used plant part. In various studies, leaves were reported to be used as powder and paste on the affected skin areas . The powder was found to be the most preferred method of utilization. The use of powder and decoction is the major mode of utilization in the herbal preparations in the ethnomedicinal studies by [35, 301]. The preparations were applied 2–3 times daily until healing occurred. A large number of herbal preparation involved soaking the plant material in water for a few days and taking the infusion, while few involved boiling the parts of plants and take the decoction. The drugs were usually prepared from the paste of the plant part either with water, lime water, rose water, coconut water, milk, ghee, and butter. Sometimes juice extract from fresh parts of plants was used. Treatments were done with single plant parts or a combination of different parts of the same plant. The amount of powder used to make a concoction was defined as a half, full or a quarter of a teaspoon. In the morning, the mixtures were regularly used before breakfast or afterward dinner, for 3-7 successive days, or till the patient was completely cured.
The medicinal plants described in this study for the cure of skin infections might also be utilized additionally for their phytochemical and pharmacological activities. Following reports carried out in various areas also described the common practices of medicinal species usage against the diseases of skin [22, 29, 48].
The overall effectiveness of the mentioned plant species in the context of curing skin ailments was calculated on the basis of the computed index called used value . This species was mentioned by 21 participants. Wounds and skin burns treated by Pisum sativum showed an increase in oxygen supply as a result of increased blood pressure flow . In other studies glycoprotein extracted from Pisum helped the formation of epidermis tissues . The highest UV for important medicinal plants like Pisum sativum and Cynodon dactylon might be ascribed to the trends of using herbal drugs for skin diseases in the area. It is also observed that plant species that are using repeatedly are more possibly to be active biologically and have good healing properties . Less available in the study site parallel to small UV e-g in case of Adiantum venustum .
Relative frequency of citation is applied to choose high potential medicinal plant species for future research anti-skin diseases drug development. The medicinal species that have high RFC should be further analyzed for phytochemical compounds, to recognize their active chemical components for drug discovery . These findings might be considered as of greatest importance for relating and assessing study in associated hypothetical fields for upcoming drug inventory and sustainable utilization of plant species for medicinal purposes .
The plant species that were cited only once by a single participant were not considered for the fidelity level study. The high value of FL indicates the choice of participants to treat the specific disease . These plants can be verified as significant medicinal flora on additional estimation by the help of pharmaceutical, phytochemical and biological actions. We have found the species as more significant having 80 FL% or greater.
In  the maximum value of FIV was documented for Juglandaceae (45%) followed by Punicaceae (44%) whereas the lowest value was noted for Vitaceae and Rubiaceae (3%) The results of present study vary from previous literature reports due to differences in climate and vegetation of area . The highest percentage of FIV demonstrates that the plants of a particular family are commonly used in curing many diseases as reported by participants.
Jaccard index is used to find out the similarity of medicinal uses with previous studies carried out on skin ailments. The maximum level of resemblance was present in findings carried out in North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan and Gilgit Baltistan Pakistan on skin diseases [1, 73]) with Jaccard index value 11.81 and 5.30, respectively. About 12% average similarity is reported among different areas and the study regions. The recent study represents a high level of novelty index with respect to the use of medicinal species in skin diseases and its significance in old traditional recipes  specified in his study work that the medicinal plants repeatedly cited must be utilized as herbal drug development. The comparison of similarities shows the significant authenticity of documented data. Similarly, the medicinal plants which are not cited in previous work should be assessed for pharmacological and phytochemical analysis for drug discovery development.
In this research, the use of medicinal plants against skin diseases were studied for the occurrence of various toxicity and phtochemicals stated in former literature (see Table 5, Additional file 1). Mostly all the species had been described previously for their one or more phytochemical important compound representing their importance in medicinal cures. In the study, phytochemical analysis on genus, Aconitum has directed to the identification of alkaloids, benzoyl mecasonine and mesaconitine . Some species of Aconitum are slightly poisonous when used in the excess amount . In other studies, Bergenia ciliate was reported to contain active compounds such as alkaloids, carbohydrates, cardiac glycosides, saponins, phenols, flavonoids and diterpenes . Allium sativum is rich with saponins, steroids, tannins, carbohydrates, allicin and cardiac glycosides which possess essential skin diseases curing activity . Alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, saponins and diterpenes compounds of Juniperus excels also have reported skin properties . High consumption of flavonoids and phenolics may inhibit enzyme activity and cause oxidative damage . Some alkaloids can inhibit enzyme activity, block ion channels loss of coordination, convulsions, hallucination and even death . Myrsine Africana reported to have an acute toxic effect and Malus pumila cause hepatotoxicity , Rubus fruticosus damage cell activity that was stated by . Discovery of drugs from medicinal plants links a multidisciplinary approach to joining pharmacological, botanical, ethnomedicinal and natural methods. Some natural products of plant derivatives are in the phase of the trial and are in experimental use . Therefore further pharmacological, ethnomedicinal and phytochemical studies should be carried out to authenticate the use of plant species in skin diseases and to discover new drugs.
The root of Butea monosperma was reported for skin diseases in the present study while it is reported as a blood purifier and skin diseases in the work of . Coriandrum sativum was used to control hypertension, joint pain, stomach complaints, and Gastrointestinal tracts problems , but in the present study, it is reported to treat pimples and skin problems. Fruits of Lagenaria siceraria were reported to treat severe body pain , while our study revealed that fruits and seeds can be used for skin problems. The leaves of Justicia adhatoda have been used for muscular pains in a study of , but this study documented that the leaves can be used for wound healing. Leaves of Myrsine africana were reported for stomach problems in the previous studies of , these results are in accord with the present study. The flowers and leaves of Verbascum thapsus were used for wounds , while the current study found that aerial parts of plant’s may be utilized for the cure of blemishes and several skin related problems.
Launaea nudicaulis and Gnaphalium affine were used often for skin ailments. Asteraceae are generally rich in flavonoids, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, triterpenes, phytosterols . Nepeta clarkei, Ajuga integrifolia, and Isodon rugosus were used for curing of boils, wound healing and skin problems, respectively. Capparis himalayensis was used for wound healing in areas of Northern Pakistan. The medicinal use of species related to wound healing was not reported earlier. Euphorbia helioscopia was reported for the treatment of cholera, jaundice, respiratory diseases, cancer , but the present study reported it for wound healing. Brassica juncea was found to treat some skin problems while the literature suggested it for the treatment of ulcers . In this study, Cucumis melo was used to treat skin burn while in a previous study it was used to treat liver diseases . This study showed that Rheum emodii can be used for skin ailments, while in literature it is mostly reported for the treatment of cancer . Our research also found that Swertia alata, as used for skin diseases, while the previous study reported it only as used for rheumatic disorders . Onosma hispida was documented to treat skin burns, compared to use as skin tonic . Verbascum thapsus also served for curing skin ailments, while traditionally it was reported for stomach diseases . Melia azedarach was found as a treatment for pimples and wound healing, but literature reported this species for sexual problems and as skin tonics . The present work therefore suggest that public sector administrator in study area should make policies in order to protect people from health problems and use of medicinal plants by local people for treatment of diseases.
This is the first quantitative ethnomedicinal study that provides information about the use of 106 species that belonging to 90 genera and 56 families for the treatment of skin diseases in Northern Pakistan. Key findings of the study revealed leaves to be the most used plant parts (58%), herb to be dominant life form (63%) and powder to be the most frequent method of administration (22%). The highest skin disease category was recorded for wound healing (40%). RFC ranged from 0.07 to 0.25%, highest use-value reported for Pisum sativum (0.143 UV), highest FIV was observed for Pteridaceae (26.6 FIV) while FL values ranged from 100% to 36.8. The medicinal information documented in this study could be explored in the future for phytochemical and pharmacological investigations which may lead to plant-based nano-medicine drug discovery and development.
Availability of data and materials
Frequency of citation
Institutional Bio-ethics Committee
Relative Frequency of citation
Traditional Health Practitioners
Abbasi AM, Khan M, Ahmad M, Zafar M, Jahan S, Sultana S. Ethnopharmacological application of medicinal plants to cure skin diseases and in folk cosmetics among the tribal communities of North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;128(2):322–35.
Ashraf M, Hayat MQ, Jabeen S, Shaheen N, Khan MA, Yasmin G. Artemisia L. species recognized by the local community of the northern areas of Pakistan as folk therapeutic plants. J Med Plant Res. 2010;4(2):112-9.
Martínez GJ, Barboza GE. Natural pharmacopoeia used in traditional Toba medicine for the treatment of parasitosis and skin disorders (Central Chaco, Argentina). J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;132(1):86–100.
Grice EA, Kong HH, Conlan S, Deming CB, Davis J, Young AC, Bouffard GG, Blakesley RW, Murray PR, Green ED. Topographical and temporal diversity of the human skin microbiome. Science. 2009;324(5931):1190–2.
De Wet H, Nciki S, van Vuuren SF. Medicinal plants used for the treatment of various skin disorders by a rural community in northern Maputaland, South Africa. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2013;9(1):1.
Yadav M, Khan KK, Beg M. Ethnobotanical plants used for curing skin diseases by tribals of Rewa district (Madhya Pradesh). Indian Journal of Life Sciences. 2012;2(1):123–7.
Gonzalez-Aspajo G, Belkhelfa H, Haddioui-Hbabi L, Bourdy G, Deharo E. Sacha Inchi oil (Plukenetia volubilis L.), effect on adherence of Staphylococus aureus to human skin explant and keratinocytes in vitro. J Ethnopharmacol. 2015;171:330–4.
Barboza GE, Cantero JJ, Núñez C, Pacciaroni A, Ariza Espinar L. Medicinal plants: a general review and a phytochemical and ethnopharmacological screening of the native argentine Flora. Kurtziana. 2009;34(1–2):7–365.
Anisuzzaman M, Rahman A, Harun-Or-Rashid M, Naderuzzaman A, Islam A. An ethnobotanical study of Madhupur, Tangail. J Appl Sci Res. 2007;3(7):519-30.
Houghton P, Hylands P, Mensah A, Hensel A, Deters A. In vitro tests and ethnopharmacological investigations: wound healing as an example. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;100(1–2):100–7.
Gebre-Mariam T, Neubert R, Schmidt P, Wutzler P, Schmidtke M. Antiviral activities of some Ethiopian medicinal plants used for the treatment of dermatological disorders. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006;104(1–2):182–7.
Srinivasan D, Nathan S, Suresh T, Perumalsamy PL. Antimicrobial activity of certain Indian medicinal plants used in folkloric medicine. J Ethnopharmacol. 2001;74(3):217–20.
Kumar VP, Chauhan NS, Padh H, Rajani M. Search for antibacterial and antifungal agents from selected Indian medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006;107(2):182–8.
Gorsi M. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants of Muzaffarabad. Hamdard Medicus. 2005;48:27–41.
Spiewak R. Occupational skin diseases among farmers. Lublin: Occupational and Para-Occupational Diseases in Agriculture Institute of Agricultural Medicine; 2000. p. 42–152.
Mahé A, Faye O, N'Diaye HT, Ly F, Konare H, Keita S, Traoré A, Hay R. Definition of an algorithm for the management of common skin diseases at primary health care level in sub-Saharan Africa. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2005;99(1):39–47.
Neamsuvan O, Kama A, Salaemae A, Leesen S, Waedueramae N. A survey of herbal formulas for skin diseases from Thailand’s three southern border provinces. J Herbal Med. 2015;5(4):190–8.
Garnatje T, Peñuelas J, Vallès J. Ethnobotany, phylogeny, and ‘omics’ for human health and food security. Trends Plant Sci. 2017;22(3):187–91.
Yang L, Ahmed S, Stepp JR, Mi K, Zhao Y, Ma J, Liang C, Pei S, Huai H, Xu G. Comparative homegarden medical ethnobotany of Naxi healers and farmers in northwestern Yunnan, China. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2014;10(1):6.
Eddouks M, Bidi A, El Bouhali B, Hajji L, Zeggwagh NA. Antidiabetic plants improving insulin sensitivity. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2014;66(9):1197–214.
Sunmonu TO, Afolayan AJ. Evaluation of antidiabetic activity and associated toxicity of Artemisia afra aqueous extract in wistar rats. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:1-8.
Saikia AP, Ryakala VK, Sharma P, Goswami P, Bora U. Ethnobotany of medicinal plants used by Assamese people for various skin ailments and cosmetics. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006;106(2):149–57.
Van Wyk B-E, Gorelik B. The history and ethnobotany of cape herbal teas. S Afr J Bot. 2017;110:18–38.
Mahwasane S, Middleton L, Boaduo N. An ethnobotanical survey of indigenous knowledge on medicinal plants used by the traditional healers of the Lwamondo area, Limpopo Province, South Africa. S Afr J Bot. 2013;88:69–75.
Choudhary MS, Mishra N, Upadhyay ST, Upadhyay R. Indigenous knowledge of using medicinal plants in treating skin deceases by Tribal’s in Central Narmada Valley of Madhya Pradesh (India). Bull Environ Pharmacol Life Sciences. 2011;1(1):60–3.
Mughal SB, Arshad N, Shoaib M, Irum N, Hussnain N. Ethnobotanical literature survey of plants used to cure skin diseases. World Appl Sci J. 2013;27(4):474–8.
Omwenga E, Hensel A, Shitandi A, Goycoolea F. Ethnobotanical survey of traditionally used medicinal plants for infections of skin, gastrointestinal tract, urinary tract and the oral cavity in Borabu sub-county, Nyamira county, Kenya. J Ethnopharmacol. 2015;176:508–14.
Egharevba R, Ikhatua M. Ethno-medical uses of plants in the treatment of various skin diseases in Ovia North east, Edo state, Nigeria. Res J Agric Biol Sci. 2008;4(1):58–64.
Njoroge GN, Bussmann RW. Ethnotherapeautic management of skin diseases among the kikuyus of Central Kenya. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007;111(2):303–7.
Süntar I, Akkol EK, Keles H, Yesilada E, Sarker SD, Baykal T. Comparative evaluation of traditional prescriptions from Cichorium intybus L. for wound healing: stepwise isolation of an active component by in vivo bioassay and its mode of activity. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012;143(1):299–309.
Ahmad K, Ahmad M, Weckerle C. Ethnoveterinary medicinal plant knowledge and practice among the tribal communities of Thakht-e-Sulaiman hills, West Pakistan. J Ethnopharmacol. 2015;170:275–83.
Ahmad L, Semotiuk A, Zafar M, Ahmad M, Sultana S, Liu Q-R, Zada MP, Abidin SZU, Yaseen G. Ethnopharmacological documentation of medicinal plants used for hypertension among the local communities of DIR lower, Pakistan. J Ethnopharmacol. 2015;175:138–46.
Bibi T, Ahmad M, Tareen RB, Tareen NM, Jabeen R, Rehman S-U, Sultana S, Zafar M, Yaseen G. Ethnobotany of medicinal plants in district Mastung of Balochistan province-Pakistan. J Ethnopharmacol. 2014;157:79–89.
Kayani S, Ahmad M, Zafar M, Sultana S, Khan MPZ, Ashraf MA, Hussain J, Yaseen G. Ethnobotanical uses of medicinal plants for respiratory disorders among the inhabitants of Gallies–Abbottabad, northern Pakistan. J Ethnopharmacol. 2014;156:47–60.
Bano A, Ahmad M, Zafar M, Sultana S, Rashid S, Khan MA. Ethnomedicinal knowledge of the most commonly used plants from Deosai plateau, Western Himalayas, Gilgit Baltistan, Pakistan. J Ethnopharmacol. 2014;155(2):1046–52.
Rashid S, Ahmad M, Zafar M, Sultana S, Ayub M, Khan MA, Yaseen G. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinally important shrubs and trees of Himalayan region of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. J Ethnopharmacol. 2015;166:340–51.
Yaseen G, Ahmad M, Sultana S, Alharrasi AS, Hussain J, Zafar M. Ethnobotany of medicinal plants in the Thar Desert (Sindh) of Pakistan. J Ethnopharmacol. 2015;163:43–59.
Shah M, Awan M. Plant biodiversity of mountains of Pakistan. In: Proceedings of International Symposium on Mountains of Pakistan-Protection, Potential and Prospects Organized by Global Change Impact Studies Centre (GCISC), Islamabad; 2002. p. 2002.
Rahman IU, Ijaz F, Afzal A, Iqbal Z, Ali N, Khan MA, Afzal M, Muhammad S, Qadir G, Asif M. Graphical dataset on important medicinal plants used for curing dental issues in Manoor Valley, Mansehra, Pakistan. Data Brief. 2016;9:1028–33.
Malik K, Ahmad M, Zhang G, Rashid N, Zafar M, Sultana S, Shah SN. Traditional plant based medicines used to treat musculoskeletal disorders in northern Pakistan. Eur J Integrative Med. 2018;19:17–64.
Akhtar N, Rashid A, Murad W, Bergmeier E. Diversity and use of ethno-medicinal plants in the region of swat, North Pakistan. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2013;9(1):1.
Malik K, Ahmad M, Bussmann RW, Tariq A, Ullah R, Alqahtani AS, Shahat AA, Rashid N, Zafar M, Sultana S. Ethnobotany of anti-hypertensive plants used in northern Pakistan. Front Pharmacol. 2018;9:1-18.
Weckerle CS, de Boer HJ, Puri RK, van Andel T, Bussmann RW, Leonti M. Recommended standards for conducting and reporting ethnopharmacological field studies. J Ethnopharmacol. 2018;210:125–32.
Umair M, Altaf M, Abbasi AM. An ethnobotanical survey of indigenous medicinal plants in Hafizabad district, Punjab-Pakistan. PloS one. 2017;12(6):e0177912.
de Oliveira PC, Braga J. Ethnobotany of Borari-Arapiuns indigenous people, Amazon, Brazil. J Medicinal Plants. 2017;5(1):164–70.
Kayani S, Ahmad M, Sultana S, Shinwari ZK, Zafar M, Yaseen G, Hussain M, Bibi T. Ethnobotany of medicinal plants among the communities of alpine and sub-alpine regions of Pakistan. J Ethnopharmacol. 2015;164:186–202.
Aburjai T, Natsheh FM. Plants used in cosmetics. Phytother Res. 2003;17(9):987–1000.
Harsha V, Hebbar S, Shripathi V, Hegde G. Ethnomedicobotany of Uttara Kannada District in Karnataka, India—plants in treatment of skin diseases. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003;84(1):37–40.
Lall N, Kishore N. Are plants used for skin care in South Africa fully explored? J Ethnopharmacol. 2014;153(1):61–84.
Afolayan AJ, Grierson DS, Mbeng WO. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the management of skin disorders among the Xhosa communities of the Amathole District, eastern cape, South Africa. J Ethnopharmacol. 2014;153(1):220–32.
Sharma J, Gairola S, Sharma YP, Gaur R. Ethnomedicinal plants used to treat skin diseases by Tharu community of district Udham Singh Nagar, Uttarakhand, India. J Ethnopharmacol. 2014;158:140–206.
Iyer SR. Ethnobotany of certain medicinal plants used by Tribals of India against skin infections. Anc Sci Life. 1992;11(3–4):143.
Gul F, Shinwari ZK, Afzal I. Screening of indigenous knowledge of herbal remedies for skin diseases among local communities of North West Punjab, Pakistan. Pakistan J Bot. 2012;5:1609–16.
Zari ST, Zari TA. A review of four common medicinal plants used to treat eczema. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 2015;9(24):702–11.
Sharma M: Use of plant based medicaments in treatment of skin diseases. Am J Phytomed Clin Therap. 2014;2:229-41.
Chanda S, Baravalia Y. Novel leads from herbal drugs for infectious skin diseases. Curr Res Technol Educ Topics Appl Microbiol Microbial Biotechnol. 2010;1:451–6.
Grierson D, Afolayan A. Antibacterial activity of some indigenous plants used for the treatment of wounds in the eastern cape, South Africa. J Ethnopharmacol. 1999;66(1):103–6.
Otang W, Afolayan A. Antimicrobial and antioxidant efficacy of Citrus limon L. peel extracts used for skin diseases by Xhosa tribe of Amathole District, Eastern Cape, South Africa. S Afr J Bot. 2016;102:46–9.
Delfan B, Bahmani M, Eftekhari Z, Jelodari M, Saki K, Mohammadi T. Effective herbs on the wound and skin disorders: a ethnobotanical study in Lorestan province, west of Iran. Asian Pacific J Tropical Dis. 2014;4:S938–42.
Rawat S, Singh R, Thakur P, Kaur S, Semwal A. Wound healing agents from medicinal plants: a review. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2012;2(3):S1910–7.
Roy SK, Mishra PK, Nandy S, Datta R, Chakraborty B. Potential wound healing activity of the different extract of Typhonium trilobatum in albino rats. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2012;2(3):S1477–86.
Rajan JP, Singh KB, Kumar S, Mishra RK. Trace elements content in the selected medicinal plants traditionally used for curing skin diseases by the natives of Mizoram, India. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2014;7:S410–4.
Villegas LF, Fernández ID, Maldonado H, Torres R, Zavaleta A, Vaisberg AJ, Hammond GB. Evaluation of the wound-healing activity of selected traditional medicinal plants from Peru. J Ethnopharmacol. 1997;55(3):193–200.
Ali-Shtayeh MS, Yaniv Z, Mahajna J. Ethnobotanical survey in the Palestinian area: a classification of the healing potential of medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000;73(1):221–32.
Agyare C, Boakye YD, Bekoe EO, Hensel A, Dapaah SO, Appiah T. Review: African medicinal plants with wound healing properties. J Ethnopharmacol. 2016;177:85–100.
Ram AJ, Bhakshu LM, Raju RV. In vitro antimicrobial activity of certain medicinal plants from eastern Ghats, India, used for skin diseases. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004;90(2):353–7.
Chen H-Y, Lin Y-H, Huang J-W, Chen Y-C. Chinese herbal medicine network and core treatments for allergic skin diseases: implications from a nationwide database. J Ethnopharmacol. 2015;168:260–7.
Hussain I, Bano A, Ullah F. Traditional drug therapies from various medicinal plants of central karakoram national park, Gilgit-Baltistan Pakistan. Pak J Bot. 2011;43:79–84.
Bhat P, Hegde GR, Hegde G, Mulgund GS. Ethnomedicinal plants to cure skin diseases—an account of the traditional knowledge in the coastal parts of Central Western Ghats, Karnataka, India. J Ethnopharmacol. 2014;151(1):493–502.
Ghosh S, Samanta A, Mandal NB, Bannerjee S, Chattopadhyay D. Evaluation of the wound healing activity of methanol extract of Pedilanthus tithymaloides (L.) Poit leaf and its isolated active constituents in topical formulation. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012;142(3):714–22.
Süntar I, Akkol EK, Keles H, Yesilada E, Sarker SD, Arroo R, Baykal T. Efficacy of Daphne oleoides subsp. kurdica used for wound healing: identification of active compounds through bioassay guided isolation technique. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012;141(3):1058–70.
Silambujanaki P, Chandra CBT, Kumar KA, Chitra V. Wound healing activity of Glycosmis arborea leaf extract in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;134(1):198–201.
Süntar I, Tatlı II, Akkol EK, Keleş H, Kahraman Ç, Akdemir Z. An ethnopharmacological study on Verbascum species: from conventional wound healing use to scientific verification. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;132(2):408–13.
Shivhare Y, Singour PK, Patil U, Pawar R. Wound healing potential of methanolic extract of Trichosanthes dioica Roxb (fruits) in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;127(3):614–9.
Olugbuyiro JA, Abo K, Leigh O. Wound healing effect of Flabellaria paniculata leaf extracts. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;127(3):786–8.
Schmidt C, Fronza M, Goettert M, Geller F, Luik S, Flores E, Bittencourt C, Zanetti G, Heinzmann B, Laufer S. Biological studies on Brazilian plants used in wound healing. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;122(3):523–32.
Kumar B, Vijayakumar M, Govindarajan R, Pushpangadan P. Ethnopharmacological approaches to wound healing—exploring medicinal plants of India. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007;114(2):103–13.
Khalil EA, Afifi FU, Al-Hussaini M. Evaluation of the wound healing effect of some Jordanian traditional medicinal plants formulated in Pluronic F127 using mice (Mus musculus). J Ethnopharmacol. 2007;109(1):104–12.
Wang K-H, Lin R-D, Hsu F-L, Huang Y-H, Chang H-C, Huang C-Y, Lee M-H. Cosmetic applications of selected traditional Chinese herbal medicines. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006;106(3):353–9.
Bisi-Johnson M, Obi C, Kambizi L, Nkomo M: A survey of indigenous herbal diarrhoeal remedies of OR Tambo district, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Afr J Biotechnol. 2010;9(8):1245-54.
Tadeg H, Mohammed E, Asres K, Gebre-Mariam T. Antimicrobial activities of some selected traditional Ethiopian medicinal plants used in the treatment of skin disorders. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;100(1):168–75.
Pieroni A, Quave CL, Villanelli ML, Mangino P, Sabbatini G, Santini L, Boccetti T, Profili M, Ciccioli T, Rampa LG. Ethnopharmacognostic survey on the natural ingredients used in folk cosmetics, cosmeceuticals and remedies for healing skin diseases in the inland marches, Central-Eastern Italy. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004;91(2):331–44.
Rashed A, Afifi F, Disi A. Simple evaluation of the wound healing activity of a crude extract of Portulaca oleracea L.(growing in Jordan) in Mus musculus JVI-1. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003;88(2):131–6.
Islam MK, Saha S, Mahmud I, Mohamad K, Awang K, Uddin SJ, Rahman MM, Shilpi JA. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by tribal and native people of Madhupur forest area, Bangladesh. J Ethnopharmacol. 2014;151(2):921–30.
Jirovetz L, Buchbauer G, Stoyanova AS, Georgiev EV, Damianova ST. Composition, quality control, and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of long-time stored dill (Anethum graveolens L.) seeds from Bulgaria. J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51(13):3854–7.
Kaur GJ, Arora DS. Antibacterial and phytochemical screening of Anethum graveolens, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2009;9(1):30.
Suresh K. Antimicrobial and Phytochemical Investigation of the Leaves of Carica papaya L., Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Euphorbia hirta L., Melia azedarach L. and Psidium guajava L. Ethnobotanical Leaflets. 2008;2008(1):157.
Dande P, Khan A. Evaluation of wound healing potential of Cynodon dactylon. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2012;5(3):161–4.
Khan UA, Rahman H, Niaz Z, Qasim M, Khan J, Tayyaba, Rehman B: Antibacterial activity of some medicinal plants against selected human pathogenic bacteria. Eur J Microbiol Immunol 2013, 3(4):272–274.
Ruby K, Chauhan R, Sharma S, Dwivedi J. Polypharmacological activities of Bergenia species. Int J Pharm Pharmaceutical Sci. 2012;1:100–9.
Mubashir S, Shah WA. Phytochemical and pharmacological review profile of Adiantum venustum. Int J Pharm Tech Res. 2011;3:827–30.
Parekh J, Chanda S: In-vitro antimicrobial activities of extracts of Launaea procumbens roxb.(Labiateae), Vitis vinifera l.(Vitaceae) and Cyperus rotundus l.(Cyperaceae. Afr J Biomed Res. 2006;9(2):89-93.
Mahesh B, Satish S. Antimicrobial activity of some important medicinal plant against plant and human pathogens. World J Agric Sci. 2008;4(5):839–43.
Yadav UC, Baquer NZ. Pharmacological effects of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. in health and disease. Pharm Biol. 2014;52(2):243–54.
Riaz M, Zia-Ul-Haq M, Jaafar HZ. Common mullein, pharmacological and chemical aspects. Rev Bras. 2013;23(6):948–59.
Cho JY, Baik KU, Jung JH, Park MH. In vitro anti-inflammatory effects of cynaropicrin, a sesquiterpene lactone, from Saussurea lappa. Eur J Pharmacol. 2000;398(3):399–407.
Gochev V, Dobreva A, Girova T, Stoyanova A. Antimicrobial activity of essential oil from Rosa alba. Biotechnol Biotechnol Equipment. 2010;24(sup1):512–5.
Geshnizjany N, Ramezanian A, Khosh-Khui M. Postharvest life of cut gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii) as affected by nano-silver particles and calcium chloride. Int J Horticultural Sci Technol. 2014;1(2):171–80.
Nisar M, Khan I, Ahmad B, Ali I, Ahmad W, Choudhary MI. Antifungal and antibacterial activities of Taxus wallichiana Zucc. J Enzyme Inhibition Medicinal Chem. 2008;23(2):256–60.
Ashraf Z, Muhammad A, Imran M, Tareq AH. In vitro antibacterial and antifungal activity of methanol, chloroform and aqueous extracts of Origanum vulgare and their comparative analysis. Int J Organic Chemistry. 2011;1(04):257.
Shahidi Bonjar G, Aghighi S, Karimi Nik A. Antibacterial and antifungal survey in plants used in indigenous herbal-medicine of south east regions of Iran. J Biol Sci. 2004;4(3):405–12.
Khan RA, Khan MR, Sahreen S, Bokhari J. Antimicrobial and phytotoxic screening of various fractions of Sonchus asper. Afr J Biotechnol. 2010;9(25):3883–7.
Yiğit D, Yiğit N, Mavi A. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of bitter and sweet apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) kernels. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2009;42(4):346–52.
Jagessar R, Mohamed A, Gomes G. An evaluation of the antibacterial and antifungal activity of leaf extracts of Momordica Charantia against Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Nat Sci. 2008;6(1):1–14.
Singh R, Dar S, Sharma P. Antibacterial activity and toxicological evaluation of semi purified hexane extract of Urtica dioica leaves. Res J Med Plants. 2012;6(2):123–35.
Hadizadeh I, Peivastegan B, Kolahi M: Antifungal activity of nettle (Urtica dioica L.), colocynth (Citrullus colocynthis L. Schrad), oleander (Nerium oleander L.) and konar (Ziziphus spina-christi L.) extracts on plants pathogenic fungi. Pakistan J Biol Sci 2009, 12(1):58.
Pirzada A, Shaikh W, Usmanghani K, Mohiuddin E. Antifungal activity of Dodonaea viscosa Jacq extract on pathogenic fungi isolated from super ficial skin infection. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2010;23:89-93.
Kumar V, Tyagi D. Antifungal activity evaluation of different extracts of Bergenia stracheyi. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci. 2013;2(7):69–78.
Cruiokshank I, Perrin DR. Studies on Prytoalexins III. The isolation, assay, and general properties of a Phytoalexin from Pisum Sativum L. Aust J Biol Sci. 1961;14(3):336–48.
Sindhia V, Bairwa R. Plant review: Butea monosperma. Int J Pharmaceutical Clin Res. 2010;2(2):90–4.
Namsa ND, Tag H, Mandal M, Kalita P, Das A. An ethnobotanical study of traditional anti-inflammatory plants used by the Lohit community of Arunachal Pradesh, India. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;125(2):234–45.
Manasa K, Kuppast I, Kumar MK, Akshara K. A review on Polygonum chinensis. Res J Pharmacol Pharmacodynamics. 2016;8(4):185.
B Aggarwal B, Prasad S, Reuter S, Kannappan R, R Yadav V, Park B, Hye Kim J, C Gupta S, Phromnoi K, Sundaram C: Identification of novel anti-inflammatory agents from Ayurvedic medicine for prevention of chronic diseases:“reverse pharmacology” and “bedside to bench” approach. Current Drug Targets 2011, 12(11):1595–1653.
Nissen L, Zatta A, Stefanini I, Grandi S, Sgorbati B, Biavati B, Monti A. Characterization and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of industrial hemp varieties (Cannabis sativa L.). Fitoterapia. 2010;81(5):413–9.
Ravn H, Brimer L. Structure and antibacterial activity of plantamajoside, a caffeic acid sugar ester from Plantago major subs major. Phytochemistry. 1988;27(11):3433–7.
Shabbir A, Shahzad M, Arfat Y, Ali L, Aziz RS, Murtaza G, Waqar SA. Berberis lycium Royle: a review of its traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology. Afr J Pharm Pharmacol. 2012;6(31):2346–53.
Borchardt JR, Wyse DL, Sheaffer CC, Kauppi KL, Ehlke RGFNJ, Biesboer DD, Bey RF. Antimicrobial activity of native and naturalized plants of Minnesota and Wisconsin. J Medicinal Plants Res. 2008;2(5):098–110.
Sarhan WA, Azzazy HM, El-Sherbiny IM. Honey/chitosan nanofiber wound dressing enriched with Allium sativum and Cleome droserifolia: enhanced antimicrobial and wound healing activity. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2016;8(10):6379–90.
Santas J, Almajano MP, Carbó R. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of crude onion (Allium cepa, L.) extracts. Int J Food Sci Technol. 2010;45(2):403–9.
Parihar P, Parihar L, Bohra A. Antibacterial activity of extracts of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. Bangladesh J Bot. 2006;35(1):85–6.
Singh A, Raghubanshi A, Singh J. Medical ethnobotany of the tribals of Sonaghati of Sonbhadra district, Uttar Pradesh, India. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002;81(1):31-41.
Pereira AP, Ferreira IC, Marcelino F, Valentão P, Andrade PB, Seabra R, Estevinho L, Bento A, Pereira JA. Phenolic compounds and antimicrobial activity of olive (Olea europaea L. cv. Cobrançosa) leaves. Molecules. 2007;12(5):1153–62.
Zeb A, Sadiq A, Ullah F, Ahmad S, Ayaz M. Phytochemical and toxicological investigations of crude methanolic extracts, subsequent fractions and crude saponins of Isodon rugosus. Biol Res. 2014;47(1):57.
Duru ME, Öztürk M, Uğur A, Ceylan Ö. The constituents of essential oil and in vitro antimicrobial activity of Micromeria cilicica from Turkey. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004;94(1):43–8.
Habbal O, Hasson S, El-Hag A, Al-Mahrooqi Z, Al-Hashmi N, Al-Bimani Z, Al-Balushi M, Al-Jabri A. Antibacterial activity of Lawsonia inermis Linn (henna) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2011;1(3):173.
Babu PD, Subhasree R. Antimicrobial activities of Lawsonia inermis-a review. Acad J Plant Sci. 2009;2(4):231–2.
Hisham A, Pathare N, Al-Saidi S. The composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Teucrium stocksianum subsp. stocksianum leaf from Oman. Nat Prod Commun. 2006;1(3):195–9.
Yadav H, Yadav M, Jain S, Bhardwaj A, Singh V, Parkash O, Marotta F. Antimicrobial property of a herbal preparation containing Dalbergia sissoo and Datura stramonium with cow urine against pathogenic bacteria. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2008;21(4):1013–20.
P Singh T, M Singh O, B Singh H: Adhatoda vasica Nees: Phytochemical and pharmacological profile. Natural Products J 2011, 1(1):29–39.
Gulfraz M, Ahmad A, Asad MJ, Afzal U, Imran M, Anwar P, Zeenat A, Abbasi KS, Maqsood S, Qureshi RU. Antidiabetic activities of leaves and root extracts of Justicia adhatoda Linn against alloxan induced diabetes in rats. Afr J Biotechnol. 2011;10(32):6101.
Gazuwa S, Makanjuola E, Jaryum K, Kutshik J, Mafulul S. The phytochemical composition of allium Cepal/allium Sativum and the effect of their aqueous extracts (cooked and raw forms) on the lipid profile and other hepatic biochemical parameters in female albino Wistar rats; 2013.
Ahmad I, Beg AZ. Antimicrobial and phytochemical studies on 45 Indian medicinal plants against multi-drug resistant human pathogens. J Ethnopharmacol. 2001;74(2):113–23.
Barnes J, Anderson LA, Phillipson JD. Herbal medicines: a guide for healthcare professionals: pharmaceutical press; 2003.
Kaur GJ, Arora DS. Bioactive potential of Anethum graveolens, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi belonging to the family Umbelliferae-current status. J Medicinal Plants Res. 2010;4(2):087–94.
Akaberi A, Mohammad-Zadeh M, Mirmoosavi Seyed J, Tazari MA, Abarashi A. Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Anethum graveolens Leaves on Seizure Induced by Pentylenetetrazole in Mice. Malaysian J Med Sci. 2013:20(5).
Sonika G, Manubala R, Deepak J. Comparative studies on anti-inflammatory activity of Coriandrum Sativum, Datura stramonium and Azadirachta Indica. Asian J Exp Biol Sci. 2010;1(1):151–4.
Patel D, Desai S, Devkar R, Ramachandran A. Acute and sub-chronic toxicological evaluation of hydro-methanolic extract of Coriandrum sativum L seeds. EXCLI J. 2012;11:566–75.
Kareparamban J, Nikam P, Jadhav A, Kadam V. Ferula foetida “Hing”: a review. Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci. 2012;3(2):775.
Barthomeuf C, Lim S, Iranshahi M, Chollet P. Umbelliprenin from ferula szowitsiana inhibits the growth of human M4Beu metastatic pigmented malignant melanoma cells through cell-cycle arrest in G1 and induction of caspase-dependent apoptosis. Phytomedicine. 2008;15(1):103–11.
de Lima JM, de Freitas FJC, Amorim RNL, Câmara ACL, Batista JS, Soto-Blanco B. Clinical and pathological effects of Calotropis procera exposure in sheep and rats. Toxicon. 2011;57(1):183–5.
Rose BN, Prasad NK. Preliminary phytochemical and pharmacognostical evaluation of Carissa spinarum leaves. Asian J Pharmacy Technol. 2013;3(1):30–3.
Matić D, Wedgwood D. The meanings of focus: the significance of an interpretation-based category in cross-linguistic analysis. J Linguistics. 2013;49(01):127–63.
Ren Z-Y, Wu Q-X, Shi Y-P. Flavonoids and triterpenoids from Anaphalis margaritacea. Chem Nat Compd. 2009;45(5):728–30.
Kumar AP, Kumud U. Pharmacognostic and phytochemical investigation of aerial parts of Artemisia pallens wall ex. Dc. Pharmacognosy J. 2010;2(9):285–8.
Luebke W. Pet crematory urn. In: Google Patents; 2000.
Zheng X, Wang W, Piao H, Xu W, Shi H, Zhao C. The genus Gnaphalium L.(Compositae): phytochemical and pharmacological characteristics. Molecules. 2013;18(7):8298–318.
Mishra GJ, Reddy M, Rana JS. Isolation of flavonoid constituent from Launaea procumbens Roxb. By preparative HPTLC method. IOSR J Pharm. 2012;2(4):5–11.
Alkhathlan HZ, Khan M, Abdullah MMS, Al-Mayouf AM, Mousa AA, Al-Othman ZAM. Launaea nudicaulis as a source of new and efficient green corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in acidic medium: a comparative study of two solvent extracts. Int J Electrochem Sci. 2014;9:870–89.
Yu R, Xu Y, Zhou T, Li J: Relation between rainfall duration and diurnal variation in the warm season precipitation over central eastern China. Geophys Res Lett 2007, 34(13).
Ambavade SD, Mhetre NA, Muthal AP, Bodhankar SL. Pharmacological evaluation of anticonvulsant activity of root extract of Saussurea lappa in mice. European Journal of Integrative Medicine. 2009;1(3):131–7.
Joshi S, Shrestha K, Bajracharya DM. Secondary metabolite variation in some species of Senecio L. from Nepal Himalaya. Pharm Innov. 2013;2(1):70-6.
Khan AS, Yu S, Liu H. Deformation induced anisotropic responses of Ti–6Al–4V alloy part II: a strain rate and temperature dependent anisotropic yield criterion. Int J Plast. 2012;38:14–26.
Vilela FC, de Mesquita PM, dos Santos-e-Silva L, Alves-da-Silva G, Giusti-Paiva A. Evaluation of the antinociceptive activity of extracts of Sonchus oleraceus L. in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;124(2):306–10.
Schütz K, Carle R, Schieber A. Taraxacum—a review on its phytochemical and pharmacological profile. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006;107(3):313–23.
Clare BA, Conroy RS, Spelman K. The diuretic effect in human subjects of an extract of Taraxacum officinale folium over a single day. J Altern Complement Med. 2009;15(8):929–34.
Liu J, Xiong Z, Li T, Huang H. Bioaccumulation and ecophysiological responses to copper stress in two populations of Rumex dentatus L. from cu contaminated and non-contaminated sites. Environ Exp Bot. 2004;52(1):43–51.
Wiedenfeld H, Edgar J. Toxicity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids to humans and ruminants. Phytochem Rev. 2011;10(1):137–51.
Mushtaq M, Anwer N, Waqar MA, Latif S, Shahid SA, Azam A. Antioxidant, antimicrobial potential and phytochemical attributes of Impatiens edgeworthii. Asian J Chem. 2013;25(17):9800.
Suzuki R, Noguchi R, Ota T, Abe M, Miyashita K, Kawada T. Cytotoxic effect of conjugated trienoic fatty acids on mouse tumor and human monocytic leukemia cells. Lipids. 2001;36(5):477–82.
Sabir S, Tahir K, Rashid N, Naz S, Masood B, Shah MA, Sualeh M. Phytochemical and antioxidant studies of Berberis lycium. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2013;26(6):1165–72.
Arukwe U, Amadi B, Duru M, Agomuo E, Adindu E, Odika P, Lele K, Egejuru L, Anudike J. Chemical composition of Persea americana leaf, fruit and seed. IJRRAS. 2012;11(2):346–9.
Cheeke PR, Rizk A: Nutritional implications of pyrrolizidine alkaloids as contaminants of foodstuffs. In: Poisonous plant contamination of edible plants. edn.: CRC Press Boca Raton, FL; 1991: 157–174.
Ahmed S: Queer phenomenology: orientations, objects, others: Duke University press; 2006.
Somova L, Shode F, Ramnanan P, Nadar A. Antihypertensive, antiatherosclerotic and antioxidant activity of triterpenoids isolated from Olea europaea, subspecies africana leaves. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003;84(2):299–305.
Saradhi PP, Mohanty P. Proline enhances primary photochemical activities in isolated thylakoid membranes of Brassica juncea by arresting photoinhibitory damage. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1991;181(3):1238–44.
Zaidi S, Usmani S, Singh BR, Musarrat J. Significance of Bacillus subtilis strain SJ-101 as a bioinoculant for concurrent plant growth promotion and nickel accumulation in Brassica juncea. Chemosphere. 2006;64(6):991–7.
Shama F, Sherman P. Identification of stimuli controlling the sensory evaluation of viscosity II. Oral methods. J Texture Stud. 1973;4(1):111–8.
Parveen S, Khalid A, Farooq A, Choudhary MI. Acetyl and butyrylcholinesterase-inhibiting triterpenoid alkaloids from Buxus papillosa. Phytochemistry. 2001;58(6):963–8.
Audu R, Onubogu C, Nwokoye N: Improving quality in national reference laboratories: the role of SLMTA and mentorship. Afr J Lab Med. 2014; 3 (2), art.# 200, 7 pages. In.
Machado Bergamaschi M, Helena Costa Queiroz R, Waldo Zuardi A, Crippa AS. Safety and side effects of cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent. Curr Drug Saf. 2011;6(4):237–49.
Schraudolf H. Indole glucosinolates of Capparis spinosa. Phytochemistry. 1989;28(1):259–60.
Pokharkar Raghunath D, Funde Prasad E, Pingale Shirish S. Aqueous extract of Capparis decidua in acute toxicity effects of the rat by use of toothache reliever activity. In: Pharmacologyonline; 2007.
Chatrchyan S, Khachatryan V, Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Aguilo E, Bergauer T, Dragicevic M, Erö J, Fabjan C. Observation of a new boson at a mass of 125 GeV with the CMS experiment at the LHC. Physics Letters B. 2012;716(1):30–61.
Liu XC, Zhou L, Liu ZL. Identification of insecticidal constituents from the essential oil of Valeriana jatamansi Jones against Liposcelis bostrychophila. Badonnel J Chem. 2013;2013:1-6.
King TE Jr, Bradford WZ, Castro-Bernardini S, Fagan EA, Glaspole I, Glassberg MK, Gorina E, Hopkins PM, Kardatzke D, Lancaster L. A phase 3 trial of pirfenidone in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. N Engl J Med. 2014;370(22):2083–92.
Kokilavani P, Suriyakalaa U, Elumalai P, Abirami B, Ramachandran R, Sankarganesh A, Achiraman S. Antioxidant mediated ameliorative steroidogenesis by Commelina benghalensis L and Cissus quadrangularis L against quinalphos induced male reproductive toxicity. Pesticide Biochem Physiol. 2014;109:18–33.
Löffler C, Sahm A, Wray V, Czygan F-C, Proksch P. Soluble phenolic constituents from Cuscuta reflexa and Cuscuta platyloba. Biochem Syst Ecol. 1995;23(2):121–8.
Mukhopadhyay S, Banerjee SK, Atal C, Lin L-J, Cordell GA. Alkaloids of Corydalis govaniana. J Nat Prod. 1987;50(2):270–2.
Arora V, Scinocca J, Boer G, Christian J, Denman K, Flato G, Kharin V, Lee W, Merryfield W. Carbon emission limits required to satisfy future representative concentration pathways of greenhouse gases. Geophys Res Lett. 2011;38(5):1-15.
Akinci IE, Akinci S. Effect of chromium toxicity on germination and early seedling growth in melon (Cucumis melo L.). Afr J Biotechnol. 2010;9(29):4589–94.
Kubde MS, Khadabadi S, Farooqui I, Deore S. Lagenaria siceraria: phytochemistry, pharmacognosy and pharmacological studies. Rep Opin. 2010;2(3):91–8.
Puri R, Sud R, Khaliq A, Kumar M, Jain S. Gastrointestinal toxicity due to bitter bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria)─ a report of 15 cases. Indian J Gastroenterol. 2011;30(5):233–6.
Tofighi Z, Alipour F, Yassa N, Hadjiakhoondi A, Hadavinia H, Goodarzy S, Golestani R. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Otostegia persica essential oil from Iran. Int J Essential Oil Ther. 2009;3:45–8.
Kumar A, Gupta R, Mishra RK, Shukla AC, Dikshit A. Pharmaco-phylogenetic investigation of Micromeria biflora Benth and Citrus reticulata Blanco. National Academy Science Letters. 2012;35(4):253–7.
Kumar P, Kumar M, Ramanathan A, Tsujimura M. Tracing the factors responsible for arsenic enrichment in groundwater of the middle Gangetic plain, India: a source identification perspective. Environ Geochem Health. 2010;32(2):129–46.
Craig AM, Karchesy JJ, Blythe LL, del Pilar González-Hernández M, Swan LR. Toxicity studies on western juniper oil (Juniperus occidentalis) and port-Orford-cedar oil (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana) extracts utilizing local lymph node and acute dermal irritation assays. Toxicol Lett. 2004;154(3):217–24.
Aboumarzouk OM, Kata SG, Keeley FX, McClinton S, Nabi G. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) versus ureteroscopic management for ureteric calculi. Cochrane Libr. 2012;38:1-6. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD006029.pub3.
Saab AM, Guerrini A, Sacchetti G, Maietti S, Zeino M, Arend J, Gambari R, Bernardi F, Efferth T. Phytochemical analysis and cytotoxicity towards multidrug-resistant leukemia cells of essential oils derived from Lebanese medicinal plants. Planta Med. 2012;78(18):1927–31.
Fumeron F, Lamri A, Khalil CA, Jaziri R, Porchay-Baldérelli I, Lantieri O, Balkau B, Marre M. Group DftESotIRSS: dairy consumption and the incidence of hyperglycemia and the metabolic syndrome results from a French prospective study, data from the epidemiological study on the insulin resistance syndrome (DESIR). Diabetes Care. 2011;34(4):813–7.
Chang K-S, Shin E-H, Park C, Ahn Y-J. Contact and fumigant toxicity of Cyperus rotundus steam distillate constituents and related compounds to insecticide-susceptible and-resistant Blattella germanica. J Med Entomol. 2012;49(3):631–9.
Dubey S, Deep P, Singh AK. Phytochemical characterization and evaluation of anticataract potential of seabuckthorn leaf extract. Vet Ophthalmol. 2016;19(2):144–8.
Saggu S, Divekar H, Gupta V, Sawhney R, Banerjee P, Kumar R. Adaptogenic and safety evaluation of seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) leaf extract: a dose dependent study. Food Chem Toxicol. 2007;45(4):609–17.
Teslovich TM, Musunuru K, Smith AV, Edmondson AC, Stylianou IM, Koseki M, Pirruccello JP, Ripatti S, Chasman DI, Willer CJ. Biological, clinical and population relevance of 95 loci for blood lipids. Nature. 2010;466(7307):707–13.
Dos Santos J, Blanco M, Do Monte F, Russi M, Lanziotti V, Leal L, Cunha G. Sedative and anticonvulsant effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Equisetum arvense. Fitoterapia. 2005;76(6):508–13.
Basma AA, Zakaria Z, Latha LY, Sasidharan S. Antioxidant activity and phytochemical screening of the methanol extracts of Euphorbia hirta L. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2011;4(5):386–90.
Lu Z-Q, Guan S-H, Li X-N, Chen G-T, Zhang J-Q, Huang H-L, Liu X, Guo D-A. Cytotoxic diterpenoids from Euphorbia helioscopia. J Nat Prod. 2008;71(5):873–6.
Rajput A, Kovalenko A, Bogdanov K, Yang S-H, Kang T-B, Kim J-C, Du J, Wallach D. RIG-I RNA helicase activation of IRF3 transcription factor is negatively regulated by caspase-8-mediated cleavage of the RIP1 protein. Immunity. 2011;34(3):340–51.
Sonkar N, Ganeshpurkar A, Yadav P, Dubey S, Bansal D, Dubey N. An experimetal evaluation of nephroprotective potential of Butea monosperma extract in albino rats. Indian J Pharmacol. 2014;46(1):109.
Akter R, Rahman MA, Rhee CK. Amplified electrochemical detection of a cancer biomarker by enhanced precipitation using horseradish peroxidase attached on carbon nanotubes. Anal Chem. 2012;84(15):6407–15.
Hajare S, Chandra S, Sharma J, Tandan S, Lal J, Telang A. Anti-inflammatory activity of Dalbergia sissoo leaves. Fitoterapia. 2001;72(2):131–9.
Saeed A, Akhter MW, Iqbal M. Removal and recovery of heavy metals from aqueous solution using papaya wood as a new biosorbent. Sep Purif Technol. 2005;45(1):25–31.
Prasad M. Cadmium toxicity and tolerance in vascular plants. Environ Exp Bot. 1995;35(4):525–45.
Ahmadiani A, Javan M, Semnanian S, Barat E, Kamalinejad M. Anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of Trigonella foenum-graecum leaves extract in the rat. J Ethnopharmacol. 2001;75(2):283–6.
Raju J, Patlolla JM, Swamy MV, Rao CV. Diosgenin, a steroid saponin of Trigonella foenum graecum (fenugreek), inhibits azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci formation in F344 rats and induces apoptosis in HT-29 human colon cancer cells. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2004;13(8):1392–8.
Ahmad A, Padhye S, Sarkar FH: Role of novel nutraceuticals garcinol, plumbagin and mangiferin in the prevention and therapy of human malignancies: mechanisms of anticancer activity. In: Nutraceuticals and cancer. edn. America and Brazil: Springer; 2012. p. 179–99.
Vohra A, Kaur P, Satyanarayana T. Production, characteristics and applications of the cell-bound phytase of Pichia anomala. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2011;99(1):51–5.
Zeb A, Milne SJ. Low variation in relative permittivity over the temperature range 25–450 C for ceramics in the system (1− x)[Ba 0.8 ca 0.2 TiO 3]–x [bi (Zn 0.5 Ti 0.5) O 3]. J Eur Ceram Soc. 2014;34(7):1727–32.
Saxena J, Mathela C. Antifungal activity of new compounds from Nepeta leucophylla and Nepeta clarkei. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1996;62(2):702–4.
Veitch NC, Grayer RJ. Flavonoids and their glycosides, including anthocyanins. Nat Prod Rep. 2008;25(3):555–611.
Ahmad V, Ali Z, Zahid M, Alam N, Saba N, Khan T, Qaisar M, Nisar M. Phytochemical study of Salvia moorcroftiana. Fitoterapia. 2000;71(1):84–5.
Brahmachari G, Gorai D. Progress in the research on naturally occurring flavones and flavonols: an overview. Curr Org Chem. 2006;10(8):873–98.
Rahim-Williams B, Riley JL, Williams AK, Fillingim RB. A quantitative review of ethnic group differences in experimental pain response: do biology, psychology, and culture matter? Pain Med. 2012;13(4):522–40.
Ali N, Aleem U, Shah SWA, Shah I, Junaid M, Ahmed G, Ali W, Ghias M. Acute toxicity, brine shrimp cytotoxicity, anthelmintic and relaxant potentials of fruits of Rubus fruticosus Agg. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2013;13(1):1.
Faria NR, da Silva Azevedo RdS, Kraemer MU, Souza R, Cunha MS, Hill SC, Thézé J, Bonsall MB, Bowden TA, Rissanen I: Zika virus in the Americas: early epidemiological and genetic findings. Science 2016, 352(6283):345–349.
Raja W, Ovais M, Dubey A. Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of Lawsonia inermis leaf extract. Medicine. 2013;6:8.
Kumar P, Singhal VK. Cytology of Caltha palustris L.(Ranunculaceae) from cold regions of Western Himalayas. Cytologia. 2008;73(2):137–43.
Ahmed MF, Rao AS, Ahemad SR, Ibrahim M. Phytochemical studies and antioxidant activity of Melia azedarach Linn leaves by DPPH scavenging assay. Int J Pharm Appl. 2012;3(1):271–6.
Phua DH, Tsai W-J, Ger J, Deng J-F, Yang C-C. Human Melia azedarach poisoning. Clin Toxicol. 2008;46(10):1067–70.
Abbhi V, Joseph L, George M. Phytochemical analysis of fruit extract of Myrsine africana. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2011;3:427–30.
Asgarpanah J, Ramezanloo F. Chemistry, pharmacology and medicinal properties of Peganum harmala L. Afr J Pharm Pharmacol. 2012;6(22):1573–80.
Sobhani AM, Ebrahimi S-A, Mahmoudian M. An in vitro evaluation of human DNA topoisomerase I inhibition by Peganum harmala L. seeds extract and its a-Carboline alkaloids. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2002;5:19–23.
Bhardwaj R, Yadav A, Sharma R. Phytochemicals and antioxidant activity in Boerhavia diffusa. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2014;6:344–8.
Orisakwe OE, Afonne OJ, Chude MA, Obi E, Dioka CE. Sub-chronic toxicity studies of the aqueous extract of Boerhavia diffusa leaves. J Health Sci. 2003;49(6):444–7.
Duquesnoy RJ, Askar M. HLAMatchmaker: a molecularly based algorithm for histocompatibility determination. V. Eplet matching for HLA-DR, HLA-DQ, and HLA-DP. Hum Immunol. 2007;68(1):12–25.
Hadinegoro SR, Arredondo-García JL, Capeding MR, Deseda C, Chotpitayasunondh T, Dietze R, Hj Muhammad Ismail H, Reynales H, Limkittikul K, Rivera-Medina DM: efficacy and long-term safety of a dengue vaccine in regions of endemic disease. N Engl J Med 2015, 373(13):1195–1206.
Jain S, Jain A, Vaidya A, Kumar D, Jain V. Preliminary phytochemical, pharmacognostical and physico-chemical evaluation of Cedrus deodara heartwood. J Pharmacognosy Phytochem. 2014;3(1):91-5.
Gross JC, Chaudhary V, Bartscherer K, Boutros M. Active Wnt proteins are secreted on exosomes. Nat Cell Biol. 2012;14(10):1036–45.
Kaushik D, Kumar A, Kaushik P, Rana A. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. Adv Pharmacol Sci. 2012;2012.
Maimoona A, Naeem I, Saddiqe Z, Jameel K. A review on biological, nutraceutical and clinical aspects of French maritime pine bark extract. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;133(2):261–77.
Masood M, Afify LH, Al-Naffouri TY. Efficient coordinated recovery of sparse channels in massive MIMO. IEEE Trans Signal Process. 2015;63(1):104–18.
Van den Worm E, Beukelman CJ, Van den Berg AJ, Kroes BH, Labadie RP, Van Dijk H. Effects of methoxylation of apocynin and analogs on the inhibition of reactive oxygen species production by stimulated human neutrophils. Eur J Pharmacol. 2001;433(2):225–30.
Chung S-Y, Bloking JT, Chiang Y-M. Electronically conductive phospho-olivines as lithium storage electrodes. Nat Mater. 2002;1(2):123–8.
Ruffa M, Ferraro G, Wagner M, Calcagno M, Campos R, Cavallaro L. Cytotoxic effect of argentine medicinal plant extracts on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002;79(3):335–9.
Garg R, Patel RK, Jhanwar S, Priya P, Bhattacharjee A, Yadav G, Bhatia S, Chattopadhyay D, Tyagi AK, Jain M. Gene discovery and tissue-specific transcriptome analysis in chickpea with massively parallel pyrosequencing and web resource development. Plant Physiol. 2011;156(4):1661–78.
Ozaslan M, Didem Karagöz I, Kalender ME, Kilic IH, Sari I, Karagöz A. In vivo antitumoral effect of Plantago major L. extract on Balb/C mouse with Ehrlich ascites tumor. Am J Chin Med. 2007;35(05):841–51.
Butler AD, Wynter M, Medina VF, Bednar AJ. Depleted uranium toxicity, accumulation, and uptake in Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda) and Aristida purpurea (purple Threeawn). Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2016;96(6):714–9.
Ratan P, Kothiyal P. Fagopyrum esculentum Moench (common buckwheat) edible plant of Himalayas: a review. Asian J Pharmacy Life Sci ISSN. 2011;2231:4423.
Ahmed MJ, Murtaza G. A study of medicinal plants used as ethnoveterinary: harnessing potential phytotherapy in Bheri, district Muzaffarabad (Pakistan). J Ethnopharmacol. 2015;159:209–14.
Nkuété AH, Migliolo L, Wabo HK, Tane P, Franco OL. Evaluation of multiple functions of Polygonum genus compounds. European Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2015;6(1):1.
Tynybekov B, Litvinenko Y, Mukanova G, Satybaldiyeva G, Baimurzayev N, Ablaikhanova N, Kuatbayev A, Sharakhmetov S. Phytochemical investigation of the roots of Rumex Confertus W. grown in the culture. World Appl Sci J. 2013;26(7):941–4.
Getie M, Gebre-Mariam T, Rietz R, Höhne C, Huschka C, Schmidtke M, Abate A, Neubert R. Evaluation of the anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory activities of the medicinal plants Dodonaea viscosa, Rumex nervosus and Rumex abyssinicus. Fitoterapia. 2003;74(1–2):139–43.
Ydyrys A, Mukhitdinov N, Abibulla A, Tynybekov B, Akhmetova A, Karime A. The States of Coenpopulations of endemic, relict and rare species of plant Limonium michelsonii and their protection. World Appl Sci J. 2013;26(7):934–40.
LEHOUfcROU H: Plant invasions in the rangelands of the isoclimatic mediterranean zone. Biogeography of Mediterranean Invasions 1991:393.
Ahmed Z, Wang Y, Ahmad A, Khan ST, Nisa M, Ahmad H, Afreen A. Kefir and health: a contemporary perspective. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2013;53(5):422–34.
Zou YP, Tan CH, Wang BD, Zhu DY, Kim SK. Chemical constituents from Myrsine africana L. Helvetica Chimica Acta. 2008;91(11):2168–73.
Zheng C, Hu C, Ma X, Peng C, Zhang H, Qin L. Cytotoxic phenylpropanoid glycosides from Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn. Food Chem. 2012;132(1):433–8.
Sharma P, Chauhan N, Lal B, Husaini A, Teixeira da Silva J: Conservation of phytodiversity of paravti valley in northwestern Himalaya of Himachal Pradesh India. Medicinal and aromatic pPlant science and biotechnology (medicinal plants of the Himalaya: advances and insights, special issue). Medicinal Aromatic Plant Sci Biotechnol 2010, 4(1):47–63.
Brahmachari G, Mondal S, Chatterjee D, Brahmachari A. Phytochemicals and biological activities of Adiantum species. J Sci Ind Res. 2003;62(12):1119–30.
Srivastava V, Mishra S, Rastogi R. Non-Newtonian arterial blood flow through an overlapping stenosis. Appl Appl Math. 2010;5(1):225–38.
Shyaula SL. Phytochemicals, traditional uses and processing of Aconitum species in Nepal. Nepal J Sci Technol. 2012;12:171–8.
Begum S, AbdEIslam NM, Adnan M, Tariq A, Yasmin A, Hameed R. Ethnomedicines of highly utilized plants in the temperate Himalayan region. African J Traditional Complementary Alternative Med. 2014;11(3):132–42.
Phukan P, Bawari M, Sengupta M. Promising neuroprotective plants from NORTH-East India. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2015;7(3):28–39.
Merfort I, Wray V, Barakat H, Hussein S, Nawwar M, Willuhn G. Flavonol triglycosides from seeds of Nigella sativa. Phytochemistry. 1997;46(2):359–63.
Ramadan MF. Nutritional value, functional properties and nutraceutical applications of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.): an overview. Int J Food Sci Technol. 2007;42(10):1208–18.
Sultana A, Nakanishi A, Roy B, Mizunoya W, Tatsumi R, Ito T, Tabata S, Rashid H, Katayama S, Ikeuchi Y. Quality improvement of frozen and chilled beef biceps femoris with the application of salt-bicarbonate solution. Asian Australasian J Animal Sci. 2008;21(6):903.
Roussos ET, Condeelis JS, Patsialou A. Chemotaxis in cancer. Nat Rev Cancer. 2011;11(8):573–87.
Vardi N, Parlakpinar H, Ates B, Cetin A, Otlu A. The protective effects of Prunus armeniaca L (apricot) against methotrexate-induced oxidative damage and apoptosis in rat kidney. J Physiol Biochem. 2013;69(3):371–81.
Cantin NE, van Oppen MJ, Willis BL, Mieog JC, Negri AP. Juvenile corals can acquire more carbon from high-performance algal symbionts. Coral Reefs. 2009;28(2):405–14.
Noratto G, Porter W, Byrne D, Cisneros-Zevallos L. Polyphenolics from peach (Prunus persica var. rich lady) inhibit tumor growth and metastasis of MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cells in vivo. J Nutr Biochem. 2014;25(7):796–800.
Chaturvedula VSP, Prakash I. Isolation of Stigmasterol and β-Sitosterol from the dichloromethane extract of Rubus suavissimus; 2012.
Paredes-López O, Cervantes-Ceja ML, Vigna-Pérez M, Hernández-Pérez T. Berries: improving human health and healthy aging, and promoting quality life—a review. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2010;65(3):299–308.
Kamnaksh A, Kovesdi E, Kwon S-K, Wingo D, Ahmed F, Grunberg NE, Long J, Agoston DV. Factors affecting blast traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma. 2011;28(10):2145–53.
Ibrar M, Muhammad N, Khan A. Chemical composition and biological screening of essential oils of Zanthoxylum armatum DC leaves. J Clin Toxicol. 2013;2013:1-6.
Gabriele B, Fazio A, Dugo P, Costa R, Mondello L. Essential oil composition of Citrus medica L. cv. Diamante (diamante citron) determined after using different extraction methods. J Sep Sci. 2009;32(1):99–108.
El-Alfy TS, Hetta MH, Yassin NZ, Rahman RFA, Kadry EM: Estrogenic activity of Citrus medica L. leaves growing in Egypt. J Appl Pharmaceutical Sci 2012, 2(8):18.
Ekwenye UN, Okorie CF. Antibacterial activity of Tetrapleura tetraptera TAUB. Pod extracts. Int J Pharma Bio Sci. 2010;1:734–41.
Zewde DK, Jembere B: Evaluation of orange peel citrus sinensis (L) as a source of repellent, toxicant and protectant against Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera: bruchidae). Momona Ethiopian J Sci. 2010;2(1):61-75.
Saleem U, Hussain K, Ahmad M, Irfan Bukhari N, Malik A, Ahmad B: Physicochemical and phytochemical analysis of Euphorbia helioscopia (L.). Pak J Pharm Sci. 2014;27(3):577-85.
Abou El Seoud KA, Bibby MC. Shoeib N, Wright CW: evaluation of some Egyptian plant species for in vitro antimycobacterial and cytotoxic activities. Pharm Biol. 2003;41(6):463–5.
Venkatesh V, Bala H. Technology acceptance model 3 and a research agenda on interventions. Decis Sci. 2008;39(2):273–315.
Arun M, Asha V. Gastroprotective effect of Dodonaea viscosa on various experimental ulcer models. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008;118(3):460–5.
Pokhrel LR, Andersen CP, Rygiewicz PT, Johnson MG. Preferential interaction of Na+ over K+ with carboxylate-functionalized silver nanoparticles. Sci Total Environ. 2014;490:11–8.
Islam M, AZHAR I, USMANGHANI K. Bioactivity evaluation of Bergenia ciliata. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2002;15:15–33.
Dharmender R, Madhavi T, Reena A, Sheetal A: Simultaneous Quantification of Bergenin,(+)-Catechin, Gallicin and Gallic acid; and Quantification of Î2-Sitosterol using HPTLC from Bergenia ciliata (Haw.) Sternb. Forma ligulata Yeo (Pasanbheda). Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta 2012, 2010.
Bashir S, Gilani AH. Antiurolithic effect of Bergenia ligulata rhizome: an explanation of the underlying mechanisms. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;122(1):106–16.
Chauhan VP, Stylianopoulos T, Martin JD, Popović Z, Chen O, Kamoun WS, Bawendi MG, Fukumura D, Jain RK. Normalization of tumour blood vessels improves the delivery of nanomedicines in a size-dependent manner. Nat Nanotechnol. 2012;7(6):383–8.
ISLAM MR, SHIMIZU N, KIMURA T. Effect of processing conditions on thermal properties of parboiled Rice. Food Sci Technol Res. 2002;8(2):131–6.
Mega JL, Braunwald E, Wiviott SD, Bassand J-P, Bhatt DL, Bode C, Burton P, Cohen M, Cook-Bruns N, Fox KA. Rivaroxaban in patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2012;366(1):9–19.
Huxtable RJ. Herbal teas and toxins: novel aspects of pyrrolizidine poisoning in the United States. Perspect Biol Med. 1980;24(1):1–14.
Banso A, Adeyemo S: Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial assessment of Abutilon mauritianum, Bacopa monnifera and Datura stramonium. Biokemistri. 2006;18(1):39-44.
Freye E, Levy J. Pharmacology and abuse of cocaine, amphetamines, ecstasy and related designer drugs: springer; 2009.
Asharani P, Wu YL, Gong Z, Valiyaveettil S. Toxicity of silver nanoparticles in zebrafish models. Nanotechnology. 2008;19(25):255102.
Shafaghat H, Najafpour GD, Rezaei SP, Sharifzadeh M. Optimal growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (PTCC 24860) on pretreated molasses for the ethanol production: the application of the response surface methodology. Chemical Industry Chem Eng Quarterly/CICEQ. 2010;16(2):199–206.
Iqbal H: Comparative efficacy of Aloe vera and Tamarix aphylla against Cutaneous leishmaniasis. Int J Basic Med Sci Pharmacy (IJBMSP). 2012;2(2):42-5.
Kucukboyaci N, Sener B. Biological activities of lignans from Taxus baccata L. growing in Turkey. J Medicinal Plants Res. 2010;4(12):1136–40.
Mahesh A, Jeyachandran R, Cindrella L, Thangadurai D, Veerapur V, Muralidhara Rao D. Hepatocurative potential of sesquiterpene lactones of Taraxacum officinale on carbon tetrachloride induced liver toxicity in mice. Acta Biol Hung. 2010;61(2):175–90.
Zaidi A, Schmoeckel M, Bhatti F, Waterworth P, Tolan M, Cozzi E, Chavez G, Langford G, Thiru S, Wallwork J. Life-supporting pig-to-primate renal xenotransplantation using genetically modified donors. Transplantation. 1998;65(12):1584–90.
Heller A, Katakis I, Ye L. Biosensor including chemically modified enzymes. In: Google Patents; 1996.
Yang C, Su X, Liu A, Zhang L, Yu A, Xi Y, Zhai G. Advances in clinical study of curcumin. Curr Pharm Des. 2013;19(11):1966–73.
Amujoyegbe O, Idu M, Agbedahunsi J, Erhabor J. Ethnomedicinal survey of medicinal plants used in the management of sickle cell disorder in southern Nigeria. J Ethnopharmacol. 2016;185:347–60.
Ahmad M, Khan MPZ, Mukhtar A, Zafar M, Sultana S, Jahan S. Ethnopharmacological survey on medicinal plants used in herbal drinks among the traditional communities of Pakistan. J Ethnopharmacol. 2016;184:154–86.
Khan MPZ, Ahmad M, Zafar M, Sultana S, Ali MI, Sun H. Ethnomedicinal uses of edible wild fruits (EWFs) in Swat Valley, northern Pakistan. J Ethnopharmacol. 2015;173:191–203.
Giday M, Asfaw Z, Woldu Z. Medicinal plants of the Meinit ethnic group of Ethiopia: an ethnobotanical study. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;124(3):513–21.
Tabuti JR, Kukunda CB, Waako PJ. Medicinal plants used by traditional medicine practitioners in the treatment of tuberculosis and related ailments in Uganda. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;127(1):130–6.
Lulekal E, Asfaw Z, Kelbessa E, Van Damme P. Ethnomedicinal study of plants used for human ailments in Ankober District, North Shewa zone, Amhara region, Ethiopia. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2013;9(1):63.
C da Costa IB, G Bonfim FP, C Pasa M, V Montero DA: Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal flora in the rural community Rio dos Couros, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Boletín Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromáticas 2017, 16(1).
Yesilada E, Küpeli E. Clematis vitalba L. aerial part exhibits potent anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic effects. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007;110(3):504–15.
Menković N, Šavikin K, Tasić S, Zdunić G, Stešević D, Milosavljević S, Vincek D. Ethnobotanical study on traditional uses of wild medicinal plants in Prokletije Mountains (Montenegro). J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;133(1):97–107.
Pieroni A, Giusti ME, Quave CL. Cross-cultural ethnobiology in the Western Balkans: medical ethnobotany and ethnozoology among Albanians and Serbs in the Pešter plateau, Sandžak, South-Western Serbia. Human Ecol. 2011;39(3):333.
Mati E, de Boer H. Ethnobotany and trade of medicinal plants in the Qaysari market, Kurdish autonomous region, Iraq. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;133(2):490–510.
Ahmad M, Sultana S, Fazl-i-Hadi S, ben Hadda T, Rashid S, Zafar M, Khan MA, Khan MPZ, Yaseen G: An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in high mountainous region of Chail valley (district swat-Pakistan). J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2014, 10(1):1.
Loots DT, van der Westhuizen FH, Botes L. Aloe ferox leaf gel phytochemical content, antioxidant capacity, and possible health benefits. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55(17):6891–6.
Choi SW, Son BW, Son YS, Park YI, Lee SK, Chung MH. The wound-healing effect of a glycoprotein fraction isolated from aloe vera. Br J Dermatol. 2001;145(4):535–45.
Rokaya MB, Münzbergová Z, Timsina B. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants from the Humla district of western Nepal. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;130(3):485–504.
Vitalini S, Tomè F, Fico G. Traditional uses of medicinal plants in Valvestino (Italy). J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;121(1):106–16.
Asadi-Samani M, Moradi M-T, Mahmoodnia L, Alaei S, Asadi-Samani F, Luther T. Traditional uses of medicinal plants to prevent and treat diabetes; an updated review of ethnobotanical studies in Iran. J Nephropathol. 2017;6(3):118.
Adnan M, Bibi R, Mussarat S, Tariq A, Shinwari ZK. Ethnomedicinal and phytochemical review of Pakistani medicinal plants used as antibacterial agents against Escherichia coli. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2014;13(1):40.
Leonti M. The future is written: impact of scripts on the cognition, selection, knowledge and transmission of medicinal plant use and its implications for ethnobotany and ethnopharmacology. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;134(3):542–55.
Procházková D, Boušová I, Wilhelmová N. Antioxidant and prooxidant properties of flavonoids. Fitoterapia. 2011;82(4):513–23.
Bhatla SC: Secondary Metabolites. In: Plant Physiology, Development and Metabolism. edn. America and Brazil: Springer; 2018. p. 1099–166.
Bellik Y, Boukraâ L, Alzahrani HA, Bakhotmah BA, Abdellah F, Hammoudi SM, Iguer-Ouada M. Molecular mechanism underlying anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic activities of phytochemicals: an update. Molecules. 2012;18(1):322–53.
Ahmad I, Ibrar M, Ali N. Ethnobotanical study of tehsil Kabal, Swat District, KPK. Pak J Bot. 2011;2011:1-9.
Zahoor M, Yousaf Z, Aqsa T, Haroon M, Saleh N, Aftab A, Javed S, Qadeer M, Ramazan H. An ethnopharmacological evaluation of Navapind and Shahpur Virkanin district Sheikupura, Pakistan for their herbal medicines. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2017;13(1):27.
Alamgeer TA, Rashid M, Malik MNH, Mushtaq MN: Ethnomedicinal Survey of plants of Valley Alladand Dehri, Tehsil Batkhela, District Malakand, Pakistan. Int J Basic Med Sci Pharmacy (IJBMSP). 2013;3(1):61-75.
Shah A, Marwat SK, Gohar F, Khan A, Bhatti KH, Amin M, Din NU, Ahmad M, Zafar M. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants of semi-tribal area of Makerwal & Gulla Khel (lying between Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Punjab provinces), Pakistan; 2013.
Akhtar N, Rashid A, Murad W, Bergmeier E. Diversity and use of ethno-medicinal plants in the region of swat, North Pakistan. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2013;9(1):25.
Ahmad M, Sultana S, Fazl-i-Hadi S, Ben Hadda T, Rashid S, Zafar M, Khan MA, Khan MPZ, Yaseen G. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in high mountainous region of Chail valley (district swat-Pakistan). J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2014;10(1):36.
Patel YS, Patel R, Mahato AKR, Joshi P. Status and diversity of ethno-medicinal plants of Dhinadhar Hill, Kachchh District, Gujarat. Int Jof Plant Animal Environ Sci. 2013;3(1):265–73.
Qasim M, Khalid M, Sayyed A, Din I, Hayat K, Jan SA. Phytochemical potentials and medicinal uses of twenty-four selected medicinal plants from Swabi, Pakistan. J Rural Dev Agric. 2016;1(1):49–58.
Awan MR, Jamal Z, Khan A. Ethno-botanical studies of economically important plants from mountainous region of Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan. Sci Tech Dev. 2013;32(4):308–18.
The authors are thankful to all key medicinal plant practitioners and participants for sharing their valuable knowledge on medicinal flora.
The authors extend their appreciation to the Deanship of the scientific Research at King Saud University for funding through research group no (RG-1440-100).
Ethics approval and consent to participate
Verbal consent was taken from participants before carrying out the study as most if the participants were illiterate. Present study was carefully designed with strict compliance of bio-ethics and approved by the Institutional Bio-ethics Committee (IBC) of Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan under the approval No PT-5695.
Consent for publication
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Table S1. Chi-square test χ2 test for gender wise distribution. Figure S1. Schematic representation of medicinal plant parts used prepared by NVivo software for skin diseases in Northern Pakistan. Figure S2. Systematic representation of mode of utilization for skin diseases in Northern Pakistan. (DOCX 615 kb)
About this article
Cite this article
Malik, K., Ahmad, M., Zafar, M. et al. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used to treat skin diseases in northern Pakistan. BMC Complement Altern Med 19, 210 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-019-2605-6
- Skin diseases
- Medicinal plant
- Northern Pakistan