Akerele O. Summary of WHO guidelines for the assessment of herbal medicine. HerbalGram. 1993;28:13–9.
Sagga S, Diverkar HM, Gupta V, Sawhney RC, Banerjee PK, Kumar R. Adaptogenic and safety evaluation of seabackthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) leaf extract: a dose dependent study. Food and Chem Toxi. 2007;45:609–17.
Obici S, Otobone FJ, da Silva-Sela VR, Ishida K, da Silva JC, Makamura CV, Cortez DAG, Audi EA. Preliminary toxicity study of dichloromethane extract of Kielmeyera coriacae stems in mice and rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008;115:131–9.
Enwereji E. Views on tuberculosis among the Igbo of Nigeria. Indigenous Knowled and Develop. 1999;7:4–7.
Ganu G, Nagore DH, Rangari M, Gupta H. Pharmacology evaluation of Ayurvedic plants in experimental animals. J of Compl and Integrat Med. 2010;7:1553–3840.
Wani JA, Achur RN, Nema RK. Phytochemical screening and aphrodisiac activity of Asparagus recemosus. Intl J of Pharm Sci and Drug Res. 2011;3(2):112–5.
Yakubu MT, Akanji MA, Oladiji AT. Aphrodisiac potentials of the aqueous extract of Fadogia agresitis (Schweinf.Ex Hiern) stem in male albino rats. Asian J. of Androl. 2005;7(4):399–404.
Malviya N, Jain S, Gupta VP, Vyas S. Recent studies on aphrodisiac herbs for the management of male sexual dysfunction- a review. Drug Res. 2011;68(1):3–8.
Odesanmi OS, Ojokuku SA, Apena A, Bikomo OE, Lawal RA. Nutritional prospect of an aphrodisiac Microdesmis keayana. J of Med Plants Res. 2012;6(7):1187–90.
Taberner PV. Aphrodisiac-the sciences and the myth. NY: University of Pennylvania Press; 1985.
Singh B, Gupta V, Bansal P, Singh R, Kumar D. Pharmacological potential of plant used as aphrodisiacs. Intl J of Pharmaceu Sci Rev and Res. 2010;5(1):104–13.
Yakubu MT, Akanji MA, Oladiji AT. Male sexual dysfunction and methods used in assessing medicinal plants with aphrodisiac potentials. Pharm Rev. 2007;1(1):49–56.
Singh R, Ali A, Jeyabalan G, Semwal A. Jaikishan, an overview of the current methodologies used for evaluation of aphrodisiac agents. J of Acute Dis. 2013;2(2):85–91.
Miegueu P, Mbongue FGY, Assongalem AE, Dzeufiet DPD, Dimo T, Kamtchouing P. Anabolic activity of alcoholic extract of Piper guineense in immature castrated rats. Pharmacol Online. 2007;1:99–107.
Tyagi RM, Urmila M, Aswar V, Mohan SL, Bodhankar GN, Zambare P, Thakurdesai A. (2008). Study of Furostenol glycoside fraction of Tribulus terresteris on male sexual function in rats. Pharmaceut. Biol. 2008;46(3):191–8.
Yakubu MT, Akanji MA. Effect of aqueous extract of Massularia acuminate stem on sexual behaviour of male Wistar rats, Evidence-Based Compl. and altern Med. 2011; ID738103, doi:10.1155/2011/738103, p.10.
Fouche G, Afolayan AJ, Wintola OA, Khorombi TE, Senabe J. Effect of the aqueous extract of the aerial parts of Monsonia angustifolia E. Mey. Ex a. Rich., on the sexual behaviour of male Wistar rats. BMC Compl. Altern. Med. 2015;15:343–53.
Gbankoto A, Anago E, Houndjo PA, Adjahouinou DC, Gbaguidi F. Effect of aqueous and Ethanolic extracts of Caesalpinia bonduc root on sexual behaviour of male Wistar rats. Intl J of Multidiscipl and Current Res. 2015;3:1137–41.
Ebenyi LN, Ogbanshi ME, Akubugwo EI, Agbafor KN, Inya-Agha OR. Aphrodisiac effect of aqueous and ethylacetate leaf extracts of Alchornea Cordifolia on male spermatogenesis. World Appli Sci J. 2016;34(3):318–22.
Goswami SK, Inamdar MN, Dethe SM, Gururaj GM, Jamwal R, Bhaskar A, Mundkinajeddu D, Agarwal A. Erectogenic and aphrodisiac property of Moringa oleifera: involvement of soluble epoxide hydrolase enzyme. Phytother Res. 2016; doi:10.1002/ptr.5614.
Rosen RC, Ashton AK. Prosexual drugs: empirical status of new aphrodisiac. Archives of Sexual Behav. 1993;22:521–43.
Patel DK, Patel K, Dhanabal SP. Phytochemical standardization of Aloe vera extract by HPTLC techniques. J of Acute Dis. 2012:47–50. doi:10.1016/S2221-6189(13)60054-2.
Jeon YH, AL E. Phosphodiesterase - overview of protein structures, potential therapeutic applications and recent progress in drug development. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2005;62:1198–220.
Ghofrani HA, Osterloh IH, Grimminger F. Sildenafil: from angina to erectile dysfunction, pulmonary hypertension and beyond. Nature Rev Drug Discov. 2006;5(8):689–702.
Adrogue HJ, Madias NE. Sodium and potassium in the pathogenesis of hypertension. New Engl J Med. 2007;356:1966–78.
Coleman E. Vitamins for Erectile Dysfunction. 2013. Available at: http://vitamins.lovetoknow.com/Vitamins_for_Erectile_Dysfunction.
Zamblé A, Sahpaz S, Bounet C, Bailleul F. Effect of Microdesmis keayana roots on sexual behavior of male rats. Phytomedicine. 2008;8:625–9.
Tajuddin AS. Latif a, Quasmi IA, effect of 50% ethanol of Syzygium aromaticum (L) Merr. And Perry. (clove) on sexual behavior of normal male rats. BMC Compl. Altern. Med. 2004;4:17–24.
Bedwall RS, Edwards MS, Katoch M, Bahuguna A, Dewan R. Histological and biochemical changes in testes of zinc deficient in BALD/C strain of mice. Indian J of Experim Bio. 1994;32:243–7.
Watcho P, Kamtchouing P, Sokeng SD, Moundipa PF, Tantchou J, Essame JL, Koueta N. Androgenic effect of Mondai whitei roots in male rats. Asian J of Androl. 2004;6:269–72.
Adimoelja A. Phytochemicals and the breakthrough of traditional herbs in the management of sexual dysfunction. Intl J of Androl. 2000;23(2):82–4.
Indurwade NH, Kawtikwar PS, Kosalge SB, Janbandhie NV. Herbal plants with aphrodisiac activity. Indian Drugs. 2005;42:67.
Kulkarni SK, Reddy DS. Pharmacotherapy of male erectile dysfunction with sildenafil. Indian J of Pharm. 1998;30:367–78.
Lue TE. Erectile dysfunction. The New England J of Med. 2000;342:1802–13.
Ogah G. Impotence, Nig. J. of Gen.l Prac. 1999; 3:30–41.
Erhabor JO, Idu M, Udo FO. Ethnomedicinal Survey of Medicinal Plants Used in the treatment of Male Infertility among the Ifa Nkari people of Ini Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Res. J. of Recent Sci. 2013; 2(ISC-2012):5–11.
Kunkel G. Plants for human consumption: an annotated checklist of the edible Phanerogams and ferns. Koenigstein: Koeltz Scientific Books; 1984.
Idu M, Erhabor JO, Timothy O, Etatuvie SO. Phytochemical and acute toxicity studies of the aqueous extract and methanol extracts of Emilia coccinea (sims) g.Dm. J. Of plant dev. Sci. 2010;2(3 & 4):89–94.
Adodo A. Nature power: A Christian Approach to Herbal medicine. 3rdedition, PAX Herbal Clinic & Research Laboratories, Ewu, Edo State, 2012.
Ross IA. Medicinal plants of the world: chemical constituents, traditional and modern medicinal uses. Totawa New Jersey: Humana press; 1999.
Joseph B, Raj SJ. Pharmacognostic and phytochemical properties of Aloe vera Linn- an overview. Intl J of Pharm Sci Rev and Res. 2010;4(2):106–10.
Oyewopo AO, Oremosu AA, Akang EN, Noronha CC, Okanlawon AO. Effects of Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis) aqueous leaf extract on testicular weight, sperm count and motility of adult male SpragueDawley rats. J Am Sci. 2011;7(4):31–4.
Iwu M. Handbook of African medicinal plants. NW: CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group; 1993.
Ahmadi R, Tavakoli P, Mafi M. The effect of immobilization stress and Aloe vera extract on serum levels of LH, FSH and testosterone in male rats. Daneshvar Med. 2012;19(98):69–74. http://daneshvarmed.shahed.ac.ir/browse.php?mag_id=33&slc_lang=en&sid=1. Accessed 12 Jan 2016.
CIOMS, ICLAS. International guiding principles for biomedical research involving animals. Council for International Organization of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) and International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS). 2012. Online-Available at: http://www.cioms.ch/images/stories/CIOMS/IGP2012.pdf. Accessed 29 Oct 2014.
Dewsbury DA, Daris HNS. Effects of reserpine on the copulatory behaviour of male rats. Physio and Behav. 1970;5:1331–533.
Szechtman H, Simantov R, Hershkowitz M. Sexual behaviours decreases pain sensitivity and stimulates endogenous opioids in male rats. Europ J of Pharm. 1981;70:278–86.
Amin KMY, Rahman SZ, Khan NA. Sexual function improving effect of Mucuna pruriens in sexually normal male rats. Fitoterapia. 1996;67:53–8.
Cao J, Zhang P, XU C, Huang T, Bai Y, Chen K, Effect of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. (burdock) roots on the sexual behavior of male rats. BMC Compl. and Altern. Med. 12;(2012):1–8.
Röschlau PV, Bernt E, Gruber W. Enzymatic determination of total cholesterol in the serum. Clin Chem Lab Med. 1974;12(9):403–407.
Ikpefan EO, Ayinde BA. Preliminary phytochemical and comparative growth inhinbitory assay of the aqueous and chloroform fractions of the methanol extract of the leaves of Persea americana mill Lawraceae. American J. Of Phytomed. And Clini. Therap. 2013;1(7):594–604.
Ang HH, Sim MK. Effects of Eurycoma longifolia sack on penile erection index and homosexual mounting in rats. Pharmacol Sci. 1997;3:117–9.
Maeda N, Matsuoka N, Yamazaki M, Arakawa H, Y. Ohkubo, I. Yamaguchi, . A screening concept based on a hypothesis led to the development of putative cognitive enhancer that stimulates penile erection. Japanese J. of Pharm. 64 (1994): 147–153.
Mbongue FGY, Kamtchouing P, Essame OJL, Yewah PM, Dimo T, Lontsi D. Effect of the aqueous extract of dry fruits of Piper guineense on the reproductive function of adult male rats. Indian J of Pharmac. 2005;37:30–2.
Ratnasooriya ND, Dharmasiri MG. Effect of Terminalia catappa seeds on the sexual behaviour and fertility of male rats. Asian J. of Androl. 2000;2:213–9.
Yakubu MT, Afolayan AJ. Effect of aqueous extract of Bulbine natalensis (baker) stem on the sexual behavior of male rats. Intl J. of Androl. 2008;32:629–36.
Mills TM, Reilly CM, Lewis RW. Androgens and penile erection: a review. J of Androl. 1996;17:635–58.
Morelli A, Filippi S, Vignozzi L, Mancina R, Maggi M. Physiology of erectile function: an update on intracellular molecules processes. EAU – EBU Update Series. 2006;4:96–108.
Aversa A, Fabbri A. New oral agents for erectile dysfunction: what is changing in our practice? Asian J of Androlo. 2001;3:175–9.
Morales A. Androgen supplementation in practice: the treatment of erectile dysfunction associated with hypotestosteronemia. In: Vermeulen A, editor. Oddens BJ. London: Androgens and aging male. Parthenon publishing group; 1996. p. 233–45.
Murphy LL, Cadena RS, Charez D, Ferraro JS. Effect of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium) on male copulatory behavior in the rats. Physiol Behav. 1998;64:445–50.
Gatsing D, Nkeugouapi CFN, Nkah BFN, Kuiate JR, Tchouanguep FM. Antibacterial activity, bioavailability and acute toxicity evaluation of the leaf extract of Alchornea cordifolia (Euphorbiaceae). Int J Pharm. 2010;6:173–82.
Idu M, Erhabor JO. Ovuakporie-Uvo. Ethnomedicinal plants used by the Idoma people – Benue state, Nigeria American J of Ethnomed 2014; 1(1):072–088.