The American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures 2014 http://www.cancer.org/research/cancerfactsstatistics/cancerfactsfigures [Accesed 1 Apr. 2015].
Jemal A, Bray F, Center MM, Ferlay J, Ward E, Forman D. Global cancer statistics. CA Cancer J Clin. 2011;61(2):69–90.
Binefa G, Rodriguez-Moranta F, Teule A, Medina-Hayas M. Colorectal cancer: from prevention to personalized medicine. World J Gastroenterol. 2014;20(22):6786–808.
Grady WM, Carethers JM. Genomic and epigenetic instability in colorectal cancer pathogenesis. Gastroenterology. 2008;135(4):1079–99.
Yang P, Cartwright C, Chan D, Ding J, Felix E, Pan Y, et al. Anticancer activity of fish oils against human lung cancer is associated with changes in formation of PGE2 and PGE3 and alteration of Akt phosphorylation. Mol Carcinog. 2014;53(7):566–77.
Granci V, Cai F, Lecumberri E, Clerc A, Dupertuis YM, Pichard C. Colon cancer cell chemosensitisation by fish oil emulsion involves apoptotic mitochondria pathway. Br J Nutr. 2013;109(7):1188–95.
Yao Q, Fu T, Wang LU, Lai Y, Wang Y, Xu C, et al. Role of autophagy in the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid-induced death of lung cancer A549 cells. Oncol Lett. 2015;9(6):2736–42.
Su X, Tanalgo P, Bustos M, Dass CR. The effect of krill Oil and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on human osteosarcoma cell proliferation and migration. Curr Drug Targets. 2015;16:1–8.
de Rosa A, Gomez D, Hossaini S, Duke K, Fenwick SW, Brooks A, et al. Stage IV colorectal cancer: outcomes following the liver-first approach. J Surg Oncol. 2013;108(7):444–9.
Turk HF, Chapkin RS. Membrane lipid raft organization is uniquely modified by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2013;88(1):43–7.
Zhang C, Yu H, Ni X, Shen S, Das UN. Growth inhibitory effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on colon cancer cells via their growth inhibitory metabolites and fatty acid composition changes. PLoS One. 2015;10(4):e0123256.
Fahy B, Bold RJ. Epidemiology and molecular genetics of colorectal cancer. Surg Oncol. 1998;7(3–4):115–23.
Fasano E, Serini S, Piccioni E, Toesca A, Monego G, Cittadini AR, et al. DHA induces apoptosis by altering the expression and cellular location of GRP78 in colon cancer cell lines. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1822(11):1762–72.
Xia LJ, Li MG. Effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on proliferation and apoptosis of human colon cancer cell. Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2012;15(5):490–4.
Kuan CY, Walker TH, Luo PG, Chen CF. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids promote paclitaxel cytotoxicity via inhibition of the MDR1 gene in the human colon cancer Caco-2 cell line. J Am Coll Nutr. 2011;30(4):265–73.
Kansal S, Bhatnagar A, Agnihotri N. Fish oil suppresses cell growth and metastatic potential by regulating PTEN and NF-kappaB signaling in colorectal cancer. PLoS One. 2014;9(1):e84627.
Fukui M, Kang KS, Okada K, Zhu BT. EPA. An omega-3 fatty acid, induces apoptosis in human pancreatic cancer cells: role of ROS accumulation, caspase-8 activation, and autophagy induction. J Cell Biochem. 2013;114(1):192–203.
Cho Y, Turner ND, Davidson LA, Chapkin RS, Carroll RJ, Lupton JR. A chemoprotective fish oil/pectin diet enhances apoptosis via Bcl-2 promoter methylation in rat azoxymethane-induced carcinomas. Exp Bio Med. 2012;237(12):1387–93.
Bathen TF, Holmgren K, Lundemo AG, Hjelstuen MH, Krokan HE, Gribbestad IS, et al. Omega-3 fatty acids suppress growth of SW620 human colon cancer xenografts in nude mice. Anticancer Res. 2008;28(6A):3717–23.
Manna S, Chakraborty T, Ghosh B, Chatterjee M, Panda A, Srivastava S, et al. Dietary fish oil associated with increased apoptosis and modulated expression of Bax and Bcl-2 during 7,12-dimethylbenz (alpha) anthracene-induced mammary carcinogenesis in rats. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2008;79(1–2):5–14.
Winther B, Hoem N, Berge K, Reubsaet L. Elucidation of phosphatidylcholine composition in krill oil extracted from Euphausia superba. Lipids. 2011;46(1):25–36.
Tou JC, Jaczynski J, Chen YC. Krill for human consumption: nutritional value and potential health benefits. Nutr Rev. 2007;65(2):63–77.
Ramprasath VR, Eyal I, Zchut S, Jones PJ. Enhanced increase of omega-3 index in healthy individuals with response to 4-week n-3 fatty acid supplementation from krill oil versus fish oil. Lipids Health Dis. 2013;12:178.
Wijendran V, Huang MC, Diau GY, Boehm G, Nathanielsz PW, Brenna JT. Efficacy of dietary arachidonic acid provided as triglyceride or phospholipid as substrates for brain arachidonic acid accretion in baboon neonates. Pediatr Res. 2002;51(3):265–72.
Ulven SM, Kirkhus B, Lamglait A, Basu S, Elind E, Haider T, et al. Metabolic effects of krill oil are essentially similar to those of fish oil but at lower dose of EPA and DHA, in healthy volunteers. Lipids. 2011;46(1):37–46.
Zhu JJ, Shi JH, Qian WB, Cai ZZ, Li D. Effects of krill oil on serum lipids of hyperlipidemic rats and human SW480 cells. Lipids Health Dis. 2008;7:30–6.
Wong RS. Apoptosis in cancer: from pathogenesis to treatment. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2011;30:87.
Salimon J, Abdullah BM, Salih N. Hydrolysis optimization and characterization study of preparing fatty acids from Jatropha curcas seed oil. Chem Cent J. 2011;5:67.
Lepage G, Roy CC. Direct transesterification of all classes of lipids in a one-step reaction. J Lipid Res. 1986;27(1):114–20.
Ikeda K, Myotoku M, Hirotani Y. Characterization of multidrug resistance-associated protein mRNAs expression profiles in Caco-2 and HT-1080 cell lines induced by methotrexate. Pharmazie. 2008;63(12):883–9.
Luk F, Yu Y, Walsh WR, Yang JL. IGF1R-targeted therapy and its enhancement of doxorubicin chemosensitivity in human osteosarcoma cell lines. Cancer Invest. 2011;29(8):521–32.
Zhang C, Yu H, Shen Y, Ni X, Shen S, Das UN. Polyunsaturated fatty acids trigger apoptosis of colon cancer cells through a mitochondrial pathway. Arch Med Sci. 2015;11(5):1081–94.
Vaughan VC, Hassing MR, Lewandowski PA. Marine polyunsaturated fatty acids and cancer therapy. Br J Cancer. 2013;108(3):486–92.
Chiu LC, Ooi VE, Wan JM. Eicosapentaenoic acid modulates cyclin expression and arrests cell cycle progression in human leukemic K-562 cells. Int J Oncol. 2001;19(4):845–9.
Clarke RG, Lund EK, Latham P, Pinder AC, Johnson IT. Effect of eicosapentaenoic acid on the proliferation and incidence of apoptosis in the colorectal cell line HT29. Lipids. 1999;34(12):1287–95.
Courtney ED, Matthews S, Finlayson C, Di Pierro D, Belluzzi A, Roda E, et al. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) reduces crypt cell proliferation and increases apoptosis in normal colonic mucosa in subjects with a history of colorectal adenomas. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2007;22(7):765–76.
Corsetto PA, Montorfano G, Zava S, Jovenitti IE, Cremona A, Berra B, et al. Effects of n-3 PUFAs on breast cancer cells through their incorporation in plasma membrane. Lipids Health Dis. 2011;10:73.
Larsson SC, Kumlin M, Ingelman-Sundberg M, Wolk A. Dietary long-chain n-3 fatty acids for the prevention of cancer: a review of potential mechanisms. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79(6):935–45.
Schmitz G, Ecker J. The opposing effects of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. Prog Lipid Res. 2008;47(2):147–55.
Lai PB, Ross JA, Fearon KC, Anderson JD, Carter DC. Cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells exposed to eicosapentaenoic acid in vitro. Br J Cancer. 1996;74(9):1375–83.
Chiu LC, Tong KF, Ooi VE. Synergistic action of piroxicam on the eicosapentaenoic acid-induced apoptosis is associated with enhanced down-regulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 expression but not promoted activation of pro-apoptotic bid protein. Oncol Rep. 2004;11(1):225–30.
Chi TY, Chen GG, Lai PB. Eicosapentaenoic acid induces Fas-mediated apoptosis through a p53-dependent pathway in hepatoma cells. Cancer J. 2004;10(3):190–200.
Piazzi G, D’Argenio G, Prossomariti A, Lembo V, Mazzone G, Candela M, et al. Eicosapentaenoic acid free fatty acid prevents and suppresses colonic neoplasia in colitis-associated colorectal cancer acting on Notch signaling and gut microbiota. Int J Cancer. 2014;135(9):2004–13.
Heimli H, Giske C, Naderi S, Drevon CA, Hollung K. Eicosapentaenoic acid promotes apoptosis in Ramos cells via activation of caspase-3 and −9. Lipids. 2002;37(8):797–802.
Arita K, Kobuchi H, Utsumi T, Takehara Y, Akiyama J, Horton AA, et al. Mechanism of apoptosis in HL-60 cells induced by n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Biochem Pharmacol. 2001;62(7):821–8.
Colquhoun A, Schumacher RI. Gamma-Linolenic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid induce modifications in mitochondrial metabolism, reactive oxygen species generation, lipid peroxidation and apoptosis in Walker 256 rat carcinosarcoma cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2001;1533(3):207–19.
Sharma G, Rani I, Kansal S, Bhatnagar A, Agnihotri N. Alterations in mitochondrial membrane in chemopreventive action of fish oil. Cancer Invest. 2013;31(4):231–40.
Hong MY, Chapkin RS, Barhoumi R, Burghardt RC, Turner ND, Henderson CE, et al. Fish oil increases mitochondrial phospholipid unsaturation, upregulating reactive oxygen species and apoptosis in rat colonocytes. Carcinogenesis. 2002;23(11):1919–25.
Hongmei Z. Extrinsic and Intrinsic apoptosis Signal Pathway review. Biochemistry GaMb, editor: Tobias M. Ntuli; 2012. Chapter 1.
Jeong S, Jing K, Kim N, Shin S, Kim S, Song KS, et al. Docosahexaenoic acid-induced apoptosis is mediated by activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases in human cancer cells. BMC Cancer. 2014;14(1):1–11.
Shin S, Jing K, Jeong S, Kim N, Song KS, Heo JY, et al. The omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid DHA induces simultaneous apoptosis and autophagy via mitochondrial ROS-mediated Akt-mTOR signaling in prostate cancer cells expressing mutant p53. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:1–11.
Schonberg SA, Lundemo AG, Fladvad T, Holmgren K, Bremseth H, Nilsen A, et al. Closely related colon cancer cell lines display different sensitivity to polyunsaturated fatty acids, accumulate different lipid classes and downregulate sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1. FEBS J. 2006;273(12):2749–65.
Giros A, Grzybowski M, Sohn VR, Pons E, Fernandez-Morales J, Xicola RM, et al. Regulation of colorectal cancer cell apoptosis by the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids Docosahexaenoic and Eicosapentaenoic. Cancer Prev Res. 2009;2(8):732–42.
Cockbain AJ, Toogood GJ, Hull MA. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for the treatment and prevention of colorectal cancer. Gut. 2012;61(1):135–49.
Irwin ME, Mueller KL, Bohin N, Ge Y, Boerner JL. Lipid raft localization of EGFR alters the response of cancer cells to the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib. J Cell Physiol. 2011;226(9):2316–28.
Chapkin RS, McMurray DN, Lupton JR. Colon cancer, fatty acids and anti-inflammatory compounds. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2007;23(1):48–54.
Calviello G, Palozza P, Maggiano N, Piccioni E, Franceschelli P, Frattucci A, et al. Cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis are modified by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in normal colonic mucosa. Lipids. 1999;34(6):599–604.
Mateos HT, Lewandowski PA, Vaughan VC, Su X. Health impacts of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. CAB Reviews. 2013;8(7):1–12.
Mansara PP, Deshpande RA, Vaidya MM, Kaul-Ghanekar R. Differential Ratios of Omega Fatty Acids (AA/EPA + DHA) Modulate Growth, Lipid Peroxidation and Expression of Tumor Regulatory MARBPs in Breast Cancer Cell Lines MCF7 and MDA-MB-231. PLoS One. 2015;10(9):e0136542.
Cicero AF, Colletti A. Krill oil: evidence of a new source of polyunsaturated fatty acids with high bioavailability. Clin Lipidol. 2015;10(1):1–4.