Skip to main content

Table 5 Associations with past-12-month AYUSH and traditional health practitioner use

From: Utilization of complementary and traditional medicine practitioners among middle-aged and older adults in India: results of a national survey in 2017–2018

Variable AYUSH practitioner use Traditional/Folk healer use
Crude Odds Ratio (95% CI) Adjusted Odds Ratio
(95% CI)
Crude Odds Ratio
(95% CI)
Adjusted Odds Ratio
(95% CI)
Age (years)
 45–59 (female spouse: any age) 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference)
  ≥ 60 1.22 (1.09, 1.35)*** 1.20 (1.07, 1.34)** 1.13 (1.01, 1.28)* 0.95 (0.83, 1.08)
Sex
 Female 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference)
 Male 0.85 (0.78, 0.93)*** 0.76 (0.68, 0.85)*** 0.95 (0.88, 1.03)  
Subjective socioeconomic status
 Low (1–3) 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference)
 Medium (4–5) 0.89 (0.77, 1.02) 0.95 (0.82, 1.11) 0.63 (0.55, 0.72)*** 0.74 (0.65, 0.84)***
 High (6–10) 0.62 (0.51, 0.76)*** 0.72 (0.60, 0.87)*** 0.51 (0.41, 0.63)*** 0.70 (0.58, 0.85)***
Residence
 Rural 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference)
 Urban 0.61 (0.48, 0.77)*** 0.71 (0.57, 0.88)** 0.17 (0.12, 0.23)*** 0.25 (0.19, 0.34)***
Hypertension 0.85 (0.75, 0.96)** 0.91 (0.80, 1.04) 0.64 (0.55, 0.73)*** 0.82 (0.71, 0.95)**
Diabetes 0.57 (0.47, 0.69)*** 0.66 (0.55, 0.81)*** 0.32 (0.25, 0.41)*** 0.50 (0.39, 0.65)***
Chronic lung disease 1.14 (0.92, 1.40) 0.83 (0.67, 1.03)
Cancer 1.28 (0.76, 2.14) 1.14 (0.51, 2.55)
Chronic heart disease 0.49 (0.36, 0.68)*** 0.52 (0.37, 0.73)*** 0.51 (0.32, 0.81)** 0.68 (0.43, 1.09)
Stroke 1.11 (0.81, 1.53) 0.74 (0.52, 1.05)
Any bone or joint diseases 1.57 (1.34, 1.83)*** 1.57 (1.35, 1.82)*** 1.02 (0.88, 1.18)
Neurological or psychiatric problem 0.93 (0.68, 1.27) 0.81 (0.58, 1.13)
Depressive symptoms 1.13 (0.97, 1.33) 1.39 1.19, 1.62)*** 1.17 (1.01, 1.35)*
Sleep problems 1.01 (0.86, 1.19) 1.57 (1.31, 1.88)*** 1.28 (1.08, 1.51)**
Symptom-based pain 1.72 (1.49, 1.97)*** 1.48 (1.29, 1.69)*** 2.10 (1.76, 2.51)*** 1.82 (1.55, 2.15)***
Current tobacco use 1.26 (1.11, 1.44)*** 1.30 (1.12, 1.50)*** 1.62 (1.44, 1.82)*** 1.35 (1.22, 1.51)***
Has health insurance 0.38 (0.31, 0.46)*** 0.36 (0.30, 0.44)*** 0.43 (0.34, 0.53)*** 0.41 (0.33, 0.51)***
  1. CI Confidence Interval; ***p < 0.001;**p < 0.01; *p < 0.05