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Table 5 Medicinal plant characteristics and use for different ailments

From: Traditional medicinal knowledge and practices among the tribal communities of Thakht-e-Sulaiman Hills, Pakistan

Species with Authority citation, Accession no. and Family Local name / Habit Occurrence / Availability Disease category with UR Route of application / Used form Parts Used / Mode of preparation Use Reported from Pakistan Used as food URs (Informants)
Acacia modesta Wall. (127146)
Fabaceae
palous / Tree Foothills / Frequent Multisystem (1), Medicinal food (2), Musculoskeletal (11) Oral / Fresh & dried Terminal buds (1), Gums (13) / Without processing Young fresh twigs are chewed for body coolness. Gums are eaten directly for musculoskeletal problems. Also, the gums are given to women as tonic after childbirth.
Food: The gums are eaten as food.
[19, 35] No 14 (12)
Alternanthera paronychioides A.St.-Hil. (127218)
Amaranthaceae
Penderwash / Herb Foothills / Frequent Ritual (2) Topical / Fresh Arial parts / Without processing Arial parts are fastened around the infected organ against ‘voice infection’ “No” No 2 (2)
Achyranthes bidentata Blume (127164)
Amaranthaceae
Jeza lashtha / Herb Foothills / Frequent Multisystem (1), Fever (2) Oral / Fresh Leaves / Decoction Fresh leaves decoction is drunk against high temperature, malaria and sunstroke. Its use in the area is disappearing. No No 3 (2)
Allium spp L. (127217)
Alliacaeae
cook / Herb Mountains / Frequent Fever (4), Hepatic 2), Multisystem (1), Gastrointestinal (6), Musculoskeletal (1), Medicinal food (8), Respiratory (8) Oral / Fresh & dried Leaves (10), Bulb (20) / Without processing The plant is eaten against cough, malaria, diabetes, hepatitis, stomach problems, warms in intestines, sprains in body, gasses in body, and also considered as better for general health conditions.
Food: The plants is taken fresh with bread and also used as condiment.
No Yes 30 (15)
Prunus brahuica (Boiss.) Aitch. & Hemsl. (127160)
Rosaceae
Ghorghosthai / Tree Foothills / Occasional Repellent (14),
Musculoskeletal (2), Dermatological (4)
Oral & topical / Fresh Gums (6), Tertiary branches (14) / Without processing It is strongly believed in the area that if have the stick of this in your hand or home then snakes do not bite you and do not come in your house. Gums are mixed with sugar and then eaten for musculoskeletal problems. Also gums are applied on abscesses. “No” No 20 (16)
Arisaema jacquemontii Blume (127174)
Araceae
Kharpata / Herb Mountains / Occasional Ritual Oral / Fresh Fruit (1), Root (1) / Without processing Its root and fruit are eaten fresh in a small amount which finish the “masiyath” disease. “No” No 2 (2)
Berberis calliobotrys Bien. ex Koehne (127222)
Berberidaceae
thor korai / Shrub Mountains / Occasional Musculoskeletal (24), Hepatic (1), Urinogenital (1), Blood System (1) Oral / Fresh Roots / Paste Fresh root bark is taken paste is orally against musculoskeletal ailments, high blood pressure and spermatorrhoea (but excessive use and touch with teeth can cause loss of teeth). The decoction of root bark is taken against jaundice. No No 27 (24)
Bergenia ciliata (Haw.) Sternb. (127297)
Saxifragaceae
da ovr sawai / Herb Mountains / Rare Dermatological Topical / Fresh Leaves / Ash The ash of the leaves is applied on fire burnt wounds. No No 1 (1)
Calotropis procera (Aiton) Dryand. (127228)
Apocynaceae
spalmai / Shrub Foothills / Frequent Dermatological (9), Ritual (16) Topical / Fresh & dried Latex (22), Stem (3) / Juice (1), Without processing Milky latex is applied on external wound and on Abscess. Latex is applied on external wound or its wood part (fresh or dried) is fastened around the wounded/infected organ against “‘voice infection’”. [26, 36] No 25 (23)
Caralluma tuberculata N.E. Br. (127133)
Apocynaceae
Pamanai / Herb Foothills / Rare Blood system (2), Respiratory (4), Multisystem (14), Earache (2), Gastrointestinal (9), Medicinal food (6) Oral & topical / Fresh Arial parts / Juice (1) Without processing (36) A single drop of its extract is dropped in the painful ear of kids. Eaten raw or cooked which is used against blood pressure, piles, diabetes. Arial parts are warmed on fire and eaten for cough. Eaten against intestinal warms, for stomach problems, gasses in the body and considered as better for health.
Food: This is very famous wild vegetable in the area.
[36, 37] Yes 37 (12)
Celtis australis L. (127176)
Cannabaceae
thaghah / Tree Foothills / Occasional Ritual Topical / Fresh & dried Branches / Without processing Fresh or dried young branches are used as Amulet (kept in the cloths or fasten around the arm) against evil eye. No No 3 (3)
Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. (127182)
Cucurbitaceae
Kandelay / Herb Foothills / Frequent Dental Incense / Fresh & dried Seeds / Smoke Fresh and dried seeds are put on the hot coal and the smoke is directed to the infected teeth (i.e. against worms in the teeth). No No 3 (3)
Clematis orientalis L. (127139)
Ranunculaceae
chengenwaly / Climber Mountains / Occasional Dental Topical / Fresh Leaves / Paste Fresh leaves paste is kept on arm for short time (as longer keeping make wound on arm) against teeth pain. No No 5 (5)
Cotoneaster microphyllus Wall. ex Lindl. (127234)
Rosaceae
manray / Shrub Foothills / Frequent Gastrointestinal Oral / Fresh Fruit / Without processing Fresh fruits are taken orally against constipation. Not often used as medicine.
Food: Also used as common wild fruit.
No Yes 3 (3)
Curcuma longa L. (127235)
Zingiberaceae
kurkaman / Herb Foothills / Frequent Musculoskeletal (8), Hepatic (8) Oral & topical / Fresh & dried Rhizome / Without processing (8), Powder (8) Dried rhizome powder is mixed with half boiled egg or taken with water for Musculoskeletal ailments. The rhizome is hanged around the neck against Jaundice. This plant is cultivated, and the locals bought it from the market.
Food: It is commonly used as condiment.
[38] Yes 16 (12)
Cymbopogon jwarancusa (Jones) Schult. (127141)
Poaceae
boyan sergarai / Herb Foothills / Frequent Multisystem Oral / Fresh & dried Roots / Decoction Root bark is boiled in water. Take 1 cup for 2–3 days, shorten the duration of typhoid. No No 6 (6)
Dalbergia sissoo DC. (127237)
Fabaceae
sawa / Tree Foothills / Rare Multisystem Topical / Fresh Leaves / Paste Fresh leaves paste is applied on head for cooling. Rarely available as its growing zone is below the start of foothills. No No 2 (2)
Ehretia obtusifolia Hochst. ex A.DC. (127161)
Boraginaceae
maraghoney / Shrub Foothills / Occasional Gastrointestinal Oral / Fresh Fruit / Without processing Fresh fruits are taken directly against constipation
Food: Its fruit is also considered as famine food.
No No 3 (3)
Ephedra gerardiana Wall. ex Stapf. (127150)
Ephedraceae
oman / Shrub Mountains / Rare Dental (1), Dermatological (3), Gastrointestinal (39), Musculoskeletal (1) Oral & topical / Fresh & dried Secondary & Tertiary branches / Without processing (1), Powder (43) Young fresh stem is chewed for teeth bleeding, dried stem powder is taken with water for stomachache and musculoskeletal problems. Also, the powder is spread on wounds for rapid healing No No 44 (38)
Euphorbia prolifera Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don (127159)
Euphorbiaceae
thandawany / Herb Mountains / Frequent Ritual Topical / Fresh Leaves / Without processing Fresh leaves are fastened around wounded spot to avoid ‘voice infection’. No No 42 (42)
Euphorbia prostrata Aiton (127239)
Euphorbiaceae
thandawany / Herb Foothills / Frequent Ritual Topical / Fresh Latex / Without processing Fresh leaves are fastened around wounded part to avoid ‘voice infection’. No No 1 (1)
Ficus palmata Forssk. (127240)
Moraceae
injar / Tree Foothills / Occasional Gastrointestinal Oral / Fresh Fruit / Without processing Fresh fruits are eaten against constipation. Leaves are cooked and eaten as meal which is considered good against constipation.
Food: Used as common wild fruit and its leaves as vegetable.
[19, 35] Yes 4 (4)
Ipomoea turbinata Lag. (127245)
Convolvulaceae
kulmovala / Climber Foothills / Occasional Gastrointestinal (2), Hepatic (1), Obesity (6) Oral / Fresh Stem / Decoction Decoction of fresh stem is taken orally against stomach gasses and obesity, also used against jaundice. No No 9 (7)
Litsea monopetala (Roxb.) Pers. (127249)
Lauraceae
zyer largai / Tree Foothills / Rare Hepatic Oral / Fresh Stem wood / Decoction Decoction of fresh wood is taken orally against jaundice. No No 18 (18)
Mentha longifolia (L.) L. (127209)
Lamiaceae
shamshobai / Herb Foothills / Frequent Fever (1), Gastrointestinal (26), Multisystem (1) Oral & topical / Fresh & dried Leaves / Without processing (2), Powder (4), Infusion (22) Dried leave powder is taken with water against fever and stomach problems. Fresh leave infusion is taken orally against diarrhea, abdominal pain and for body cooling. Leaves are placed beneath sleeping pillow for typhoid. [39, 40] No 28 (25)
Sideroxylon mascatense (A.DC.) T.D.Penn. (127185)
Sapotaceae
gurgur / Tree Foothills / Frequent Dermatological (1), Gastrointestinal (1) Oral & Topical / Fresh Leaves (1), Fruit (1) / Without processing (1), Juice (1) Fresh leaves paste is applied on wound against the inserted spins. Fresh fruit is considered useful against constipation, but its excessive use may cause diarrhea.
Food: Common and well-known wild fruit of the area.
Not reported against wound Yes 2 (2)
Morina longifolia Wall. ex DC. (127204)
Caprifoliaceae
jeaz azghai / Herb Mountains / Occasional Multisystem Oral / Fresh Leaves / Without processing Extract of fresh leaves are taken orally for body cooling. “No” No 1 (1)
Nannorrhops ritchiana (Griff.) Aitch. (127253)
Arecaceae
mazarai / Shrub Foothills / Occasional Gastrointestinal Oral & topical / Fresh & dried Flower (1), Leaves (1) / Without processing Fresh and dried flowers are taken directly for abdominal pain. Fresh leaves are fastened around the wounded organ against ‘voice infection’. Its gums Not reported against eye irritations No 2 (1)
Notholirion thomsonianum (Royle) Stapf (127166)
Liliaceae
shyajey / Herb Foothills / Occasional Gastrointestinal Oral / Fresh Leaves / Without processing Fresh leaves are cooked and eaten against constipation.
Food: Used as wild vegetable.
Yes [26, 41] Yes 1 (1)
Olea ferruginea Wall. ex Aitch. (127151)
Oleaceae
shwawan / Tree Foothills / Frequent Ophthalmological (3), Dental (1), Gastrointestinal (28) Oral & topical / Fresh & dried Leaves (1), Gums (3), Fruit (28) / Without processing Fresh leaves are chewed for dental problems. Gum is applied to irritated eyes with small smooth wood sticks. Fruits are eaten (fresh & dried) against constipation and it also kills intestinal worms. Also considered good for improving general health conditions.
Food: Common and well-known wild fruit of the area.
No Yes 32 (28)
Peganum harmalla L. (127154)
Nitrariaceae
spanda / Herb Foothills / Frequent Multisystem Oral & Topical / Fresh & dried Leaves (1), Seeds (1) / Smell (1), Smoke (1) Fresh leaves are smashed between fingers and smelled for influenza. Smokes of dried seeds are made (by putting the seeds on hot coal) near the person suffering from masiyath disease. The smoke of seeds is used (by putting its seeds on water pipe) for asthma disease. “No” No 2 (1)
Phlomoides spectabilis (Falc. ex Benth.) Kamelin & Makhm. (127258)
Lamiaceae
zer panray / Herb Mountains / Occasional Dermatological Topical / Fresh Leaves / Infusion Take a bath with infusion of fresh leaves against skin allergy. Its use is getting lost in the area. No No 1 (1)
Pinus gerardiana Wall. ex D. Don (127203)
Pinaceae
zanghozai / Tree Mountains / Frequent Dermatological (9), Ritual (10),
Repellent (3), Medicinal food (8)
Oral & Topical / Fresh Resins and wood-oil / Without processing Resins are applied on wound for rapid healing. Also, resins with wood-oila are applied on wound against ‘voice infection’. The wood-oil is also applied on skin at night as mosquito repellent.
Food: It is very famous wild fruit of the area and considered good for health as quite nutritious and warm for the body in winter.
“No” Yes 30 (19)
Pinus wallichiana A.B.Jacks. (127213)
Pinaceae
nashthar / Tree Mountains / Frequent Musculoskeletal (22), Dermatological (1),
Repellent (4), Ritual (7)
Oral & topical / Fresh & dried Resin and wood-oil / Without processing Resin is eaten directly or taken with water for musculoskeletal problems. Applied directly on wounds for healing and against ‘voice infection’. Wood-oil is also used against ‘voice infection’. The wood-oil is also applied on skin at night as mosquito repellent. “No” Yes 34 (29)
Punica granatum L. (127208)
Lythraceae
nergos / Shrub Foothills / Occasional Respiratory (5), Gastrointestinal (1) Oral / Fresh & dried Fruits / Paste (1), Without processing Dried fruit is warmed on fire and eaten for cough especially in winter. Fruit is eaten fresh against constipation and diarrhea. This plant is available in the wild, but its cultivation has been started in the area.
Food: It is well known wild fruit of the area.
Not reported for cough Yes 6 (5)
Rumex dentatus L. (127196)
Polygonaceae
skheryai / Herb Mountains / Occasional Hepatic Oral / Fresh Roots / Decoction Decoction of fresh root is taken orally against jaundice. No No 3 (3)
Solanum surattense Burm. f. (127157)
Solanaceae
maraghoney / Herb Foothills / Frequent Musculoskeletal (1), Obesity (1), Gastrointestinal (2) Oral / Fresh & dried Seeds / Without processing Fresh or dried seeds are mixed with something sweet (due to its bitter taste) and taken orally against gasses in the body, abdominal worms, muscular pain and obesity. [25] No 4 (2)
Teucrium stocksianum Boiss. (127267)
Lamiaceae
da thaby botai / Herb Foothills / Frequent Multisystem (1), Fever (46) Oral / Fresh Leaves / Infusion Fresh leaves infusion is taken orally for body cooling and against malaria. As it is bitter in taste, sugar is mostly eaten just after swallowing it to remove its bitterness, especially by kids. No No 47 (41)
Thymus linearis Benth. (127211)
Lamiaceae
marvai / Herb Mountains / Frequent Gastrointestinal Oral / Fresh Leaves / Infusion Fresh leaves are cut into pieces, put in water, placed below stars for whole night, sieved and drunk early at the morning for stomach ailments. [35, 42] Yes 6 (6)
Valeriana jatamansi Jones (127214)
Caprifoliaceae
da dasthu botai / Herb Mountains / Frequent Gastrointestinal Oral / Fresh Leaves / Juice Juice of fresh leaves are taken orally against diarrhea. No No 21 (20)
Viburnum cotinifolium D. Don (127210)
Adoxaceae
thoray / Shrub Mountains / Frequent Gastrointestinal Oral / Fresh Fruit / Without processing Fruit is eaten fresh against constipation.
Food: Common and well-known wild fruit of the area.
[43] Yes 11 (8)
Withania coagulans (Stocks) Dunal (127195)
Solanaceae
khamazor / Shrub Foothills / Frequent Gastrointestinal (27), Multisystem (4), Hepatic (1) Oral / Fresh & dried Leaves (1), Fruit (31) / Infusion (5), Without processing (27) Fresh or dried fruits infusion is taken orally to cool the body and against sunstroke. Fruits are taken with water (after removing exocarp) for abdominal pain, stomach problems and abdominal gasses. Young fruits are eaten directly to finish the effect of musculoskeletal ailments, also used against jaundice. [36] No 32 (32)
Ziziphus jujuba Mill. (127153)
Rhamnaceae
bera / Tree Foothills / Occasional Gastrointestinal Oral / Fresh Fruit / Without processing Fruits are eaten fresh against constipation. It is not often eaten for this purpose but when eaten produces this effect. It is rarely available as its growing zone is below the foothills.
Food: It is well known wild fruit of the area.
[44] Yes 2 (2)
Ziziphus oxyphylla Edgew. (127199)
Rhamnaceae
heilaneiy / Tree Foothills / Occasional Respiratory (2), Gastrointestinal (1) Oral / Fresh Fruits / Without processing Fruit is eaten fresh against cough and constipation.
Food: It is well known wild fruit of the area.
Not reported against cough Yes 3 (3)
  1. aWood-oil: It is obtained from burning the logs in a clavin-like structure and then collect it
  2. Note: The numbers in column 4 and 6 are use reports
  3. The no in inverted commas i.e. “No” in the second last column of the table shows not reported in the literature from the country for the culturally bound disease of the area i.e. ‘voice infection and masiyath’