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Table 1 Baseline demographic and outcome measures of participants

From: Efficacy of a curcumin extract (Curcugen™) on gastrointestinal symptoms and intestinal microbiota in adults with self-reported digestive complaints: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

  Placebo Curcumin p-value
  n = 40 n = 39  
Age
 Mean 43.20 40.69 .325 a
 SE 1.74 1.84
BMI
 Mean 24.80 25.53 .404 a
 SE 0.62 0.61
Gender (n)
 Male 6 (15%) 4 (10%) .869b
 Female 34 (85%) 35 (90%)
Marital Status (n)
 Single 10 (25%) 15 (91%) .198 b
 Married 30 (75%) 24 (38%)
Educational Level (n)
 Secondary 16 (27%) 22 (56%) .137 b
 Tertiary 15 (63%) 14 (36%)
 Post-graduate 9 (10%) 8 (12%)
Exercise Level (n)
 Never/Rarely 7 (18%) 5 (13%) .947 b
 1 to 2 times a week 8 (20%) 8 (21%)
 3 to 5 times a week 15 (37%) 38 (8%)
 6+ times a week 10 (25%) 28 (18%)
Duration of gastrointestinal problems (n)
 <  6 months 2 (5%) 1 (3%) .148 a
 6 to 12 months 1 (10%) 0 (0%)
 1–2 years 2 (2%) 4 (10%)
 2 to 5 years 3 (8%) 9 (23%)
 5 to 10 years 14 (35%) 6 (15%)
 10+ years 18 (45%) 18 (46%)
GSRS: Total score
 Mean 2.63 2.89 .106 a
 SE 0.10 0.12
GSRS: Abdominal pain
 Mean 2.50 2.5 .998 a
 SE 0.14 0.13
GSRS: Reflux
 Mean 2.06 2.14 .764 a
 SE 0.18 0.19
GSRS: Diarrhoea
 Mean 2.71 2.65 .872 a
 SE 0.24 0.24
GSRS: Indigestion
 Mean 3.15 3.52 .118 a
 SE 0.15 0.18
GSRS: Constipation
 Mean 2.44 3.06 .059 a
 SE 0.20 0.26
DASS-21: Total score
 Mean 22.35 23.23 .830 a
 SE 2.7 3.08
DASS-21: Depression
 Mean 6.15 5.74 .798 a
 SE 1.02 1.21
DASS-21: Anxiety
 Mean 5.00 5.64 .598 a
 SE 0.83 0.88
DASS-21: Stress
 Mean 11.2 11.85 .730 a
 SE 1.22 1.41
SF-36: Physical functioning
 Mean 88.38 88.67 .605 a
 SE 2.27 2.39
SF-36: Role limitations due to physical health
 Mean 70.63 70.51 .990 a
 SE 6.26 6.55
SF-36: Role limitations due to emotional problems
 Mean 60.8 69.28 .306 a
 SE 5.97 5.67
SF-36: Energy/fatigue
 Mean 42.38 43.85 .748 a
 SE 3.5 2.92
SF-36: Emotional wellbeing
 Mean 68.4 73.23 .169 a
 SE 2.38 2.54
SF-36: Social functioning
 Mean 75.5 73.9 .750 a
 SE 3.83 3.2
SF-36: General health
 Mean 59.25 65.26 .206 a
 SE 3.77 2.79
SF-36: Pain
 Mean 74.55 63.36 .017 a
 SE 2.95 3.47
SIBO n = 39 n = 39  
Elevated hydrogen (n)
 Negative 12 (31%) 13 (39%) .115 b
 Borderline 7 (18%) 4 (12%)
 Positive 20 (51%) 16 (48%)
Elevated methane (n)
 Negative 16 (41%) 18 (46%) .446 b
 Borderline 5 (13%) 8 (21%)
 Positive 18 (46%) 13 (33%)
Elevated combined (n)
 Negative 3 (8%) 8 (21%) .256 b
 Borderline 8 (21%) 6 (15%)
 Positive 28 (72%) 25 (64%)
  1. a = Independent samples t-test; b = Chi-square Test