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Table 9 Access by naturopaths to private and public resources and reimbursementsc

From: Characteristics of global naturopathic education, regulation, and practice frameworks: results from an international survey

  Regulation Type
Total (n=65) No Regulation (n=28)b Title protection (n=18)b Defined Practice (n=27)b Other (n=7)b
Access to private health insurance N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%)
Full/Limited Access 41 (63.1) 14 (50.0) 16 (88.9) 20 (74.0) 7 (100.0)
Not Allowed/Not Applicable 23 (35.4) 13 (46.4) 1 (5.5) 6 (22.2) 0 (0.0)
Unsure 3 (4.6) 1 (3.5) 1 (5.5) 1 (3.7) 0 (0.0)
Access to government funded public health
Full/Limited Access 9 (13.8)a 2 (7.1)a 6 (33.3)a 8 (29.6)a 0 (0.0)
Not Allowed/Not Applicable 55 (84.6) 25 (89.2)a 11 (61.1)a 18 (66.6)a 7 (100.0)
Unsure 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
Access to medical integration (hospital privileges)
Full/Limited Access 14 (21.5)a 4 (14.2)a 10 (55.5)a 11 (40.7)a 1 (14.2)
Not Allowed/Not Applicable 49 (75.4) 23 (82.1)a 7 (38.8)a 14 (51.8)a 6 (85.7)
Unsure 1 (1.5) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (3.7) 0 (0.0)
Method of payment/cost reimbursement for naturopathic services
 Direct payment by patient (no reimbursement by third-party)
  Consultation Costs 43 (66.2) 13 (46.4) 12 (66.6) 20 (74.0) 4 (57.1)
  Naturopathic Product Prescriptions 42 (64.6) 13 (46.4) 13 (72.2) 20 (74.0) 5 (71.4)
  In-Office treatments 38 (58.5) 11 (39.2) 13 (72.2) 20 (74.0) 4 (57.1)
 Government funded / public health reimbursement
  Consultation Costs 6 (9.2) 0 (0.0) 6 (33.3) 6 (22.2) 0 (0.0)
  Naturopathic Product Prescriptions 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
  In-Office treatments 7 (10.8) 1 (3.5) 6 (33.3) 5 (18.5) 1 (14.2)
 Private health insurance reimbursement
  Consultation Costs 36 (55.4) 13 (46.4) 13 (72.2) 19 (70.3) 4 (57.1)
  Naturopathic Product Prescriptions 14 (21.5) 5 (17.8) 4 (22.2) 4 (14.8) 1 (14.2)
  In-Office treatments 36 (55.4) 11 (39.2) 14 (77.7) 18 (66.6) 4 (57.1)
 Other third-party funder reimbursement (e.g. Veteran’s affairs, Employer-funded workplace injury insurance)
  Consultation Costs 10 (15.4) 2 (7.1) 4 (22.2) 6 (22.2) 1 (14.2)
  Naturopathic Product Prescriptions 1 (1.5) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
  In-Office treatments 7 (10.8) 1 (3.5) 3 (16.6) 4 (14.8) 1 (14.2)
 Not applicable
  Consultation Costs 10 (15.4) 9 (32.1) 0 (0.0) 1 (3.7) 0 (0.0)
  Naturopathic Product Prescriptions 10 (15.4) 8 (28.5) 0 (0.0) 1 (3.7) 0 (0.0)
  In-Office treatments 9 (13.8) 7 (25.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (3.7) 0 (0.0)
Factors that impact patient cost reimbursement of naturopathic services
Practitioner must have malpractice insurance 21 (32.3) 11 (39.2) 5 (27.7) 11 (40.7) 3 (42.8)
Practitioner must have registered title/number from regulatory body 30 (46.2) 9 (32.1) 11 (61.1) 18 (66.6) 4 (57.1)
Patient characteristics (e.g. veterans, workplace, injury, elderly) 3 (4.6) 1 (3.5) 3 (16.6) 3 (11.1) 0 (0.0)
Diagnosed disease/condition 13 (20.0) 2 (7.1) 8 (44.4) 9 (33.3) 2 (28.5)
Level of practitioner education/qualification 19 (29.2) 10 (35.7) 7 (38.8) 9 (33.3) 2 (28.5)
Referral from a medical practitioner 8 (12.3) 3 (10.7) 3 (16.6) 3 (11.1) 1 (14.2)
Type of therapies /treatments provided by the practitioner 24 (36.9) 7 (25.0) 11 (61.1) 14 (51.8) 3 (42.8)
Other 13 (20.0) 6 (21.4) 5 (27.7) 7 (25.9) 1 (14.2)
Not applicable 19 (29.2) 12 (42.8) 1 (5.5) 3 (11.1) 1 (14.2)
  1. aAdjusted for missing data; b.Some respondents reported multiple regulation types.c Analysis excluded Belgium, Egypt, Hong Kong, State (USA) which did not indicate regulation type
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