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Table 8 Access by naturopaths to controlled or restricted actsc

From: Characteristics of global naturopathic education, regulation, and practice frameworks: results from an international survey

  No Regulation (n=28)b Title protection (n=18)b Defined Practice (n=27)b Other
(n=7)b
No Regulation (n=28)b Title protection (n=18)b Defined Practice (n=27)b Other (n=7)b
N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%)
  Ordering pathology/ laboratory tests and scans General physical examination
Full Access 3 (10.7) 11 (61.1) 12 (44.4) 2 (28.5) 17 (60.7) 16 (88.8) 24 (88.8) 4 (57.1)
Limited Access 10 (35.7) 6 (33.3) 14 (51.8) 3 (42.8) 2 (7.1) 1 (5.5) 2 (7.4) 2 (28.5)
Permitted but NOT in Curriculum 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (14.2) 3 (10.7) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
Not Allowed 15 (53.5) 1 (5.5) 1 (3.7) 1 (14.2) 6 (21.4) 1 (5.5) 1 (3.7) 0 (0.0)
Unsure 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (14.2)
  Obstetrics/ Maternity Care Acupuncture
Full Access 0 (0.0) 4 (22.2) 6 (22.2)a 0 (0.0) 6 (21.4) 12 (66.6) 16 (59.2) 2 (28.5)
Limited Access 6 (21.4) 11 (61.1) 13 (48.1) a 3 (42.8) 2 (7.1) 3 (16.6) 5 (18.5) 0 (0.0)
Permitted but NOT in Curriculum 4 (14.2) 0 (0.0) 1 (3.7) a 0 (0.0) 4 (14.2) 0 (0.0) 1 (3.7) 4 (57.1)
Not Allowed 17 (60.7) 3 (16.6) 6 (22.2) a 2 (28.5) 16 (57.1) 3 (16.6) 3 (11.1) 0 (0.0)
Unsure 1 (3.5) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 2 (28.5) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 2 (7.4) 1 (14.2)
  Diagnosis of Health Conditions Cervical Manipulation
Full Access 4 (14.2) 13 (72.2) 17 (62.9)a 3 (42.8) 3 (10.7) 12 (66.6) 20 (74.0) 1 (14.2)
Limited Access 7 (25.0) 3 (16.6) 5 (18.5)a 1 (14.2) 3 (10.7) 3 (16.6) 3 (11.1) 2 (28.5)
Permitted but NOT in Curriculum 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (14.2) 1 (3.5) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (14.2)
Not Allowed 17 (60.7) 2 (11.1) 4 (14.8)a 2 (28.5) 18 (64.2) 3 (16.6) 4 (14.8) 2 (28.5)
Unsure 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 3 (10.7) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (14.2)
  Taking Blood Samples General Manipulation
Full Access 0 (0.0) 9 (50.0) 10 (37.0) 1 (14.2) 6 (21.4) 14 (77.7) 22 (81.4) 3 (42.8)
Limited Access 5 (17.8) 4 (22.2) 9 (33.3) 2 (28.5) 4 (14.2) 1 (5.5) 2 (7.4) 1 (14.2)
Permitted but NOT in Curriculum 2 (7.1) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 2 (28.5) 5 (17.8) 1 (5.5) 0 (0.0) 1 (14.2)
Not Allowed 21 (75.0) 5 (27.7) 8 (29.6) 2 (28.5) 12 (42.8) 2 (11.1) 3 (11.1) 1 (14.2)
Unsure 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (3.5) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (14.2)
  Intravenous Administration Naturopathic treatment Prescription
Full Access 0 (0.0) 9 (50.0) 9 (33.3) 1 (14.2) 21 (75.0) 17 (94.4) 27 (100.0) 6 (85.7)
Limited Access 4 (14.2) 4 (22.2) 8 (29.6) 1 (14.2) 3 (10.7) 1 (5.5) 0 (0.0) 1 (14.2)
Permitted but NOT in Curriculum 3 (10.7) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
Not Allowed 21 (75.0) 5 (27.7) 10 (37.0) 3 (42.8) 1 (3.5) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
Unsure 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 2 (28.5) 1 (3.5) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
  Minor Surgery Sale of Naturopathic Products within Clinic
Full Access 1 (3.5) 9 (50.0) 10 (37.0) 0 (0.0) 15 (53.5)a 13 (72.2) 21 (77.7) 6 (85.7)
Limited Access 2 (7.1) 3 (16.6) 4 (14.8) 1 (14.2) 2 (7.1)a 1 (5.5) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
Permitted but NOT in Curriculum 2 (7.1) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 2 (7.1)a 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
Not Allowed 23 (82.1) 6 (33.3) 13 (48.1) 6 (85.7) 8 (28.5)a 4 (22.2) 4 (14.8) 1 (14.2)
Unsure 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 2 (7.4) 0 (0.0)
  Pharmaceutical Prescription Non-Conventional Laboratory tests (urine/hair/stool)
Full Access 0 (0.0) 7 (38.8) 8 (29.6) 0 (0.0) 16 (57.1) 13 (72.2) 20 (74.0) 5 (71.4)
Limited Access 3 (10.7) 4 (22.2) 5 (18.5) 1 (14.2) 2 (7.1) 2 (11.1) 5 (18.5) 0 (0.0)
Permitted but NOT in Curriculum 1 (3.5) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 2 (7.1) 1 (5.5) 0 (0.0) 1 (14.2)
Not Allowed 23 (82.1) 6 (33.3) 13 (48.1) 6 (85.7) 7 (25.0) 2 (11.1) 2 (7.4) 0 (0.0)
Unsure 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (3.5) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (14.2)
  1. aAdjusted for missing data; b.Some respondents reported multiple regulation types; c Analysis excluded Belgium, Egypt, Hong Kong, State (USA) which did not indicate regulation type, see supplementary information
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