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Table 1 Eco-geographical factors and carotenoid content of M. cochinchinensis from Vietnam (southern, northern and central), Thailand and Australia. Bioclimatic data was obtained from DIVA-GIS spacial analysis software. Carotenoids quantified using HPLC relative to standards with HAE extracts

From: Anticancer activity of Momordica cochinchinensis (red gac) aril and the impact of varietal diversity

Country Province Sample code Altitude (m) Temperature oC Precipitation (mm) Carotenoids mg/g
Max Min Annual range Annual range Annual Wettest month Driest month Lycopene β-carotene
S Vietnam Can Tho VS1 1 32.6 22.2 10.4 10.4 1524 254 2 0.3 1.0
Vinh Long VS3b 2 33.2 21.9 11.3 11.3 1413 244 2 1.3 0.8
HCM city VS7 6 34.7 21.1 13.6 13.6 1851 310 2 1.9 0.4
N Vietnam Hung Yen VN9a 71 32.2 11.6 20.6 20.6 1774 325 18 5.2 2.0
Ha Noi VN16 9 33.0 13.5 19.5 19.5 1700 314 14 7.5 5.3
Hoa Binh VN22 195 31.6 11.7 19.9 19.9 1801 352 8 5.1 5.7
C Vietnam Lam Dong VC28 1112 27.9 13.3 14.6 14.6 1651 248 7 6.6 1.7
Lam Dong VC29a 1112 27.9 13.3 14.6 14.6 1651 248 7 5.8 1.5
Lam Ha VC32 925 28.1 13.8 14.3 14.3 1658 252 8 6.3 1.8
Thailand Nakhon Pathom TH4 8 35.9 18.7 17.2 17.2 1237 257 6 2.3 1.5
Samut Prakan TH5 2 34.5 20.4 14.1 14.1 1439 325 10 2.5 0.3
Chiang Mai TH8 316 36.2 12.9 23.3 23.3 1163 244 7 2.9 0.2
Australia Newcastle A8 NA 25.0 18.0 NA NA NA NA NA 1.6 0.5
Newcastle A10 NA 25.0 18.0 NA NA NA NA NA 2.1 0.8
Newcastle A12 NA 25.0 18.0 NA NA NA NA NA 1.7 0.7
  1. a: Sample was selected for use in all experiments due to the mid-range level of carotenoids
  2. NA Information not available