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Table 2 Serum parameters after 8 weeks of intervention

From: The effects of thylakoid-rich spinach extract and aqueous extract of caraway (Carum carvi L.) in letrozole-induced polycystic ovarian syndrome rats

Parameter Sham PCOS control Metformin Caraway Thylakoids P- value
TG (mg/dl) 40.81 ± 5.07a 63.72 ± 3.25b 48.6 ± 4.9c 46.45 ± 4.76c 49 ± 3.16c < 0.001*
TC (mg/dl) 41.45 ± 1.96a 64.81 ± 3.15b 50.3 ± 4.13c 48.72 ± 4.1c 49.9 ± 2.94c < 0.001*
LDL_C (mg/dl) 14.27 ± 1.1a 23.18 ± 2.22b 16.5 ± 1.5dc 15.27 ± 2ad 16.81 ± 0.98c < 0.001*
HDL_C (mg/dl) 21.18 ± 2.27a 13.18 ± 0.87b 13.9 ± 1.19b 16.09 ± 1.04c 13.9 ± 0.83b < 0.001*
FBS (mg/dl) 95.9 ± 4.52a 151.27 ± 11.76b 115.3 ± 3.65c 118.36 ± 4.43c 119.27 ± 3.43c < 0.001*
Insulin (mIU/L) 11.1 ± 3.79a 14.88 ± 3.76a 12.15 ± 4.29a 13.39 ± 6.14a 12.96 ± 3.74a 0.36
HOMA − IR 2.62 ± 0.90a 5.51 ± 1.33b 3.48 ± 1.28ac 3.92 ± 1.8c 3.8 ± 1.04c < 0.001*
TNFα (pg/ml) 103.60 ± 35.13a 148.62 ± 21.95b 115.11 ± 24.10a 107.55 ± 41.19a 105.75 ± 32.85a 0.04*
MDA (pg/ml) 2.29 ± 0.1a 3.19 ± 0.2b 2.6 ± 0.28c 2.64 ± 0.18c 2.52 ± 0.28c < 0.001*
LH (mIU/mL) 9.96 ± 3.01a 18.96 ± 4.29b 13.53 ± 2.97a 14.14 ± 4.31a 14.04 ± 7.21a 0.003*
FSH (IU/mL) 17.86 ± 3.45a 22.85 ± 9.61a 23.19 ± 7.32a 22.36 ± 5.77a 22.44 ± 7.17a 0.37
  1. Sham Non PCOS induced rats that received distilled water, PCOS control PCOS induced rats that received distilled water, Metformin PCOS induced rats that received metformin, Caraway PCOS induced rats that received caraway aqueous extract, Thylakoids PCOS induced rats that received thylakoid extract, TG Triglyceride, TC Total Cholesterol, LDL_C Low density lipoprotein, HDL_C High density lipoprotein, FBS Fasting blood sugar, HOMA−IR Homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance, TNFα Tumor necrosis factor alpha, MDA Malondialdehyde, LH Luteinizing hormone, FSH Follicle-stimulating hormone
  2. Data expressed as Mean ± SD, In each row, figures bearing different superscripts are significantly different at p < 0.05 (one way ANOVA)