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Table 5 Three Month Study Blood Chemistry Males and Females Group by Sex ANOVA (bold – significant differences)

From: Toxicology studies of aqueous-alcohol extracts of Harpagophytum procumbens subsp. procumbens (Burch.) DC.Ex Meisn. (Pedaliaceae) in female and male rats

Serum measureGROUP main effectSEX main effectGROUP X SEX interactionSpecial Notes *Report as p < .001
 F, p value (df 1,24)F, p value (df 1, 24)F, p value (df 1, 24) 
Glucose (mg/dL)2.24, .1518.31, <.0010.56, .46Females < Males
Urea Nitrogen (mg/dL)3.72, .070.28, .600.03, .86No significant interaction
Creatinine (mg/dL)9.10, .00614.41, .0010.01, .92Placebo < 2014 HP & Females > Males
Sodium (mEq/L)0.07, .804.79, .040.93, .35Females > Males
Potassium (mEq/L) (> 10 values coded as missing data)0.003, .9674.43, <.0010.46, .50Females < Males
Chloride (mEq/L)0.13, .7311.99, .0021.94, .18Females < Males
Bicarbonate (mEq/L)1.22, .2845.86, <.0010.08, .79Females > Males
Anion Gap (mEq/L) (missing data coded with group average)3.12, .0912.49, .0023.12, .09Females < Males
Albumin (g/dL)1.93, .1898.42, <.0010.52, .48Females > Males
Total Protein (g/dL)4.24, .05155.26, <.0010.46, .50Females > Males
Globulin (g/dL)2.79, .110.06, .800.11, .74No significant interaction
Calcium (mg/dL)0.00, .9967.10, <.0010.01, .92Females > Males
Phosphorus (mg/dL)0.26, .611.70, .214.81, .04Differences between groups for females and males.
Females: Placebo > 2014 HP
Males: Placebo < 2014 HP
Cholesterol (mg/dL) (outlier coded with group average)2.55, .1242.63, <.0012.95, .10Females < Males
Total Bilirubin (mg/dL)17.62, <.0016.51, .024.94, .04Significant main effects and interaction. Significant differences between females and males. For both females and males, Placebo < 2014 HP. This difference was much greater for females than it was for males. (With a significant interaction, do not interpret either significant main effect.)
ALT (U/L)0.86, .362.75, .111.16, .29No significant interaction
ALP (U/L)1.38, .250.80, .381.69, .21No significant interaction
GGT (U/L)All values were “< 3” – no analyses conducted 
CK (U/L) (outlier value coded with group average)0.34, .575.60, .030.47, .50Females > Males
Hemolysis (Mild to moderate hemolysis may cause false increases in direct bilirubin and AST measurement. Marked hemolysis can adversely affect all chemistry tests.)Overall Model Test - X2 = 9.82, df 3, p = .02Binary logistic regression to predict hemolysis. Wald X2 statisticThe occurrence of hemolysis varied with group and sex. Female rats showed more hemolysis (only 1 male in 3-month data showed slight hemolysis). Hemolysis occurred at a slightly higher rate in the control group (50% of the female rats) compared to the HP group (37.5% of the female rats).
 X2 = 0.00, df 1, p = .99X2 = 0.0, df 1, p = 1.00X2 = 0.0, df 1, p = .99 
NOTE - Total Protein: p value could be rounded to p = .05; if we interpret it, Placebo > 2014 HP 
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