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Table 2 One Month Study Blood Chemistry Group ANOVA

From: Toxicology studies of aqueous-alcohol extracts of Harpagophytum procumbens subsp. procumbens (Burch.) DC.Ex Meisn. (Pedaliaceae) in female and male rats

 Mean (sd)
MeasureF, p value (df 3, 42)Control2014 HP2016 HP2016 Butanolic HP
Glucose (mg/dL)3.38, .03297.92 (61.40)248.27 (43.67) * (p = .048)239.82 (34.52) * (p = .02)253.42 (48.58)
Urea Nitrogen (mg/dL)15.50, <.00120.67 (3.45)20.82 (2.27)14.82 (1.72) * (p < .001)19.00 (1.48)
Creatinine (mg/dL) ***1.33, .28    
Sodium (mEq/L)3.28, .03142.00 (2.37)143.18 (1.78) ** (p = .017)140.36 (1.69) ** (p = .017)141.75 (2.45)
Potassium (mEq/L)11.83, <.0014.82 (0.37)5.66 (0.86)6.95 (0.65) * (p < .001)6.53 (1.47) * (p < .001)
Chloride (mEq/L)1.34, .27    
Bicarbonate (mEq/L)1.87, .15    
Anion Gap (mEq/L)4.42, .00918.00 (1.54)20.46 (1.13) * (p = .003)19.73 (1.79) * (p = .049)19.67 (2.10) (p = .052)
Albumin (g/dL)0.09, .97    
Total Protein (g/dL)0.63, .60    
Globulin (g/dL)3.53, .0232.77 (0.22)2.58 (0.20)2.52 (0.19) * (p = .009)2.62 (0.15)
Calcium (mg/dL)0.06, .98    
Phosphorus (mg/dL)3.89, .0157.04 (0.65)7.74 (0.66) * (p = .035)7.87 (0.60) * (p = .009)7.68 (0.66)
Cholesterol (mg/dL)0.06, .98    
Total Bilirubin (mg/dL)***25.08, <.0010.10 (0.00)0.21 (0.05) * (p < .001)0.23 (0.05) * (p < .001)0.23 (0.05) * (p < .001)
ALT (U/L)1.29, .29    
ALP (U/L)1.76, .17    
GGT (U/L)All values were “< 3” – no analyses conducted
CK (U/L) ****2.75, .06334.58 (143.97)467.55 (277.07)246.73 (114.43)242.42 (265.53)
 X2, p value (df 3)Control
% Slight Hemolysis
2014 HP
% Slight Hemolysis
2016 HP
% Slight Hemolysis
Butanolic HP
% Slight Hemolysis
Hemolysis (Mild to moderate hemolysis may cause false increases in direct bilirubin and AST measurement. Marked hemolysis can adversely affect all chemistry tests.)0.32, .9625%18%18%17%
  1. * Intervention group(s) was significantly (p < .05) different from control group
  2. ** Intervention groups were significantly different from each other
  3. ***Based on distributional properties of the outcome measure, group differences were also tested using nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis Test
  4. Creatinine X2 = 4.04, df 3, p = .257
  5. Total Bilirubin X2 = 30.34, df 3, p < .001
  6. **** Note – when outlier value (Data_id = 34) was excluded from the analysis, F (3, 41) = 1.81, p = .16
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