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Table 3 Antimicrobial activity of ethanolic and chloroform Artemisia gmelinii extracts and reference compounds – vancomycin, ciprofloxacin for bacteria and fluconazole for yeasts

From: Phytochemical composition of wormwood (Artemisia gmelinii) extracts in respect of their antimicrobial activity

Plant extracts chloroform extract ethanolic extract Vancomycin
Bacteria MIC (mg/mL) MBC (mg/mL) MBC/MIC ratio MIC (mg/mL) MBC (mg/mL) MBC/MIC ratio MIC-(μg/mL) MBC-(μg/mL) MBC/MIC ratio
Gram-positive bacteria
Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 5 20 4 2.5 2.5 1 0.98 7.81 8
Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 5 20 4 5 5 1 0.49 1.95 4
Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300 1.25 5 >4 1.25 5 4 0.49 1.95 4
Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228 5 >20 >4 2.5 2.5 1 0.98 0.95 1
Micrococcus luteus ATCC 10240 5 >20 >4 5 10 2 0.12 0.12 1
Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 5 10 2 5 20 4 0.24 0.49 2
Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876 5 >20 >4 5 >20 >4 0.98 16.6 16
Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 19615 5 5 1 5 5 2 0.24 0.49 2
Streptococcus pneumoniae ATCC 49619 2.5 2.5 1 5 5 2 0.24 0.49 2
Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 10 10 1 10 10 1 0.98 0.98 1
Gram-negative bacteria Ciprofloxacin
Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 > 20 > 20 nd 20 20 1 0.004 0.004 1
Proteus mirabilis ATCC 12453 > 20 > 20 nd 10 10 1 0.03 0.03 1
Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 13883 20 20 1 5 5 1 0.12 0.12 1
Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 > 20 > 20 nd 20 20 1 0.49 0.98 2
Yeasts MIC (mg/ml) MFC (mg/ml) MFC/MIC ratio MIC (mg/ml) MFC (mg/ml) MFC/MIC ratio Fluconazole
MIC
(μg/mL)
MFC
(μg/mL)
MFC/MIC ratio
Candida albicans ATCC 102231 2.5 5 2 5 10 2 0.98 1.95 2
Candida albicans ATCC 2091 5 5 1 5 10 2 0.25 0.25 1
Candida parapsilosis ATCC 22019 5 10 2 2.5 10 4 1.95 1.95 1
  1. MIC minimal inhibitory concentration, MBC minimal bactericidal concentration, MFC minimal fingicidal concentration