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Table 1 The yield and chemical composition of the studied plant extracts

From: In vitro anti-nephrotoxic potential of Ammi visnaga, Petroselinum crispum, Hordeum vulgare, and Cymbopogon schoenanthus seed or leaf extracts by suppressing the necrotic mediators, oxidative stress and inflammation

Extracts yield and composition Ammi visnaga extract (AVE) Petroselinum crispum extract (PCE) Hordeum vulgare extract (HVE) Cymbopogon schoenanthus extract (CSE)
Yield (g%) 8.28 ± 0.88c 17.86 ± 0.74a 12.27 ± 0.44b 10.93 ± 0.50b
Phenolics (mg 4-HCA eq/g extract) 366.42 ± 3.89a 99.84 ± 28.11c 248.16 ± 5.82b 210.35 ± 31.99b
Flavonoids (mg catechin eq/g extract) 260.42 ± 3.46a 30.86 ± 0.89b 9.64 ± 0.10c 9.645 ± 0.34c
Anthocyanins (mg Cy-3-glc eq/g extract) 0.75 ± 0.08c 0.59 ± 0.09d 1.08 ± 0.08a 1.04 ± 0.12b
Flavonols (mg QR eq/g extract) 3.92 ± 0.00a 1.49 ± 0.71b 0.98 ± 0.19b 0.20 ± 0.08b
Tannins (mg catechin eq/ g extract) 192.50 ± 27.50a 76.25 ± 0.00b 41.87 ± 1.87b 43.75 ± 10.00b
Triterpenoids (mg UA eq/ g extract) 0.76 ± 0.08b 1.78 ± 0.04a 0.45 ± 0.02c 0.34 ± 0.02c
Vitamin C (mg/g extract) 0.75 ± 0.01d 4.16 ± 0.50b 2.18 ± 0.02c 11.44 ± 0.10a
Phenolics, mg/g extract (RT, min)
Gallic acid (4.276) 0.04 ± 0.00 b 0.06 ± 0.00 a ND ND
p-Hydroxybenzoic acid (9.631) 0.43 ± 0.01 a 0.04 ± 0.00 b ND 0.03 ± 0.00 c
Caffeine (10.264) 0.28 ± 0.00 a ND ND 0.18 ± 0.00 b
Vanillic acid (10.923) 0.28 ± 0.00 a 0.18 ± 0.00 b 0.01 ± 0.00 d 0.13 ± 0.00 c
Caffeic acid (11.230) ND 0.23 ± 0.01 b ND 0.67 ± 0.00 a
Syringic acid (11.779) ND ND 0.01 ± 0.00 ND
Vanillin (12.911) 0.27 ± 0.00 a 0.12 ± 0.00 b 0.01 ± 0.00 d 0.06 ± 0.00 c
p-Coumaric acid (14.418) 0.26 ± 0.02 a 0.03 ± 0.00 b 0.001 ± 0.00 d 0.01 ± 0.00 c
Ferulic acid (15.458) 1.73 ± 0.01 a 0.05 ± 0.00 c 0.01 ± 0.00 c 0.30 ± 0.04 b
Catechol (8.052) 0.77 ± 0.03 a 0.02 ± 0.00 c ND 0.09 ± 0.00 b
Ellagic acid (16.314) 3.09 ± 0.00 a ND 0.01 ± 0.00 b 0.04 ± 0.00 b
Benzoic acid (17.413) 24.89 ± 1.64 a 1.17 ± 0.04 b ND 0.47 ± 0.00 c
o-Coumaric acid (18.138) 0.70 ± 0.01 a 0.03 ± 0.00 b ND 0.01 ± 0.00 b
Salicylic acid (19.561) 0.43 ± 0.04 a ND ND 0.04 ± 0.00 b
Cinnamic acid (22.793) 3.65 ± 0.16 a 0.02 ± 0.00 c ND 0.08 ± 0.00 b
  1. Results are presented as Mean ± SE (n = 3). Different letters in the same row are significantly different at p < 0.05. Cy-3-glc, cyanidin-3-glucoside, 4-HCA 4-hydroxycinnamic acid, QR quercetin, RT retention time, ND not detected