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Table 3 Univariate analysis of clinical and microbiological predictors of death in 93 cases of infectious complications after probiotic use, identified by systematic review, 1976–2018

From: Infectious complications following probiotic ingestion: a potentially underestimated problem? A systematic review of reports and case series

  No-death (n = 74) Death (n = 18) p-value OR (95% CI)
Male, n (%) 45 (60.8) 8 (44.4) 0.43
Age (years) 33.8 ± 31a 59.4 ± 22a < 0.001*
Preterm, n (%) 16 (21.6) 1 (5.5) 0.03* 0.10 (0.01–1.91)
>  60 years, n (%) 22 (29.7) 11 (61.1) 0.003* 6.25 (1.89–20.1)
CDc, n (%) 4 (5.4) 7 (38.9) < 0.001* 11.8 (2.89–48.81)
HIV infection 5 (6.7) 0 0.23
Solid organ transplant 2 (2.7) 1 (5.5) 0.55
Immunosuppressive drugs 15 (20.2) 5 (27.8) 0.89
Enteral nutrition 38 (51.3) 13 (72.2) 0.13
Parenteral nutrition 12 (16.2) 2 (11.1) 0.37
Central venous catheter 48 (64.9) 11 (61.1) 0.96
ATB use, n (%) 28 (37.8) 12 (66.7) 0.002* 9.75 (1.51–17.11)
Etiology
Saccharomyces spp. 32 (43.2) 14 (77.8) 0.03* 4.9 (1.30–15.48)
Lactobacillus spp. 25 (33.8) 1 (5.5) 0.03* 0,12 (0.01–1.05)
Bifidobacterium spp. 12 (16.2) 0 (0) 0.11 0,12 (0.01–2.31)
Beginning of probiotics until symptoms 11 (7–23)b 9 (8–14)b 0,30
Duration of treatment (d) 20 ± 16a 11 ± 8a 0.20
  1. ATB Antibiotics, CDc C. difficile colitis, (d) Days, CI 95% confidence interval, OD Odds ratio
  2. *p-value statistically significant
  3. aMedian and interquartile
  4. bmean and standard deviation