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Table 1 Elution systems, chromogenic agents, and standards used in the phytochemical analysis of the hexane extract from Spondias tuberosa leaves with thin-layer chromatography (TLC)

From: Hexane extract from Spondias tuberosa (Anacardiaceae) leaves has antioxidant activity and is an anti-Candida agent by causing mitochondrial and lysosomal damages

Classes Mobile phase Chromogenic agent Standards
Polyphenols (Hydrolysable tannins) 90:5:5 NEU + PEG Gallic acid and Ellagic acid (Sigma-Aldrich, USA)
Condensed tannins 90:5:5 Chloridric vanillin Catechin (Sigma-Aldrich, USA)
Flavonoids 90:5:5 NEU + PEG Quercetin and Rutin (Sigma-Aldrich, USA)
Cinnamic derivatives 90:5:5 NEU + PEG Caffeic acid and Chlorogenic acid (Sigma-Aldrich, USA)
Terpenes and steroids 70:30 Lieberman-Burchard + Δ β-sitosterol (Sigma-Aldrich, USA)
Coumarins 50:50:50 KOH + Δ Coumarin (Phytolab, Brazil)
Saponins 100:11:11:26 Lieberman-Burchard + Δ Escin (Sigma-Aldrich, USA)
Reducing sugars 50:20:10:10 Thymol + H2SO4 10% + Δ D-fructose (ChromaDex, USA)
Alkaloids 50:6.75:5 Dragendorf Pilocarpine nitrate (Sigma-Aldrich, USA)
Anthraquinones 50:6.75:5 HNO3 + KOH 10% Sennoside A (Sigma-Aldrich, USA)
  1. Systems: 90:5:5 – ethyl acetate: formic acid: water; 70:30 – toluene: acetate; 50:50:50 – ethyl eter: ethyl acetate: 10% acetic acid (saturation); 100:11:11:26 – ethyl acetate: acetic acid: formic acid: water; 50:20:10:10 – ethyl acetate: acetic acid: formic acid: water; 50:6.75:5 – ethyl acetate; methanol; water. NEU Neu’s reagent. PEG polyethylene glycol