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Table 4 Proposed mechanisms

From: Effects of acupuncture on vascular dementia (VD) animal models: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Findings & Proposed mechanisms
Wang 2004 [11] • Reduced NO, NOS and MDA
• Increased SOD and GSH-Px
Shao 2008 [13] Increased AVP and SS
Wang 2009 [14] • Up-regulating the expression of Bcl-2
• Counter-regulated the pro-apoptotic Bax
Wei 2011 [15] Promoting synaptic function and structure
Zhao 2011 [16] Enhanced hexokinase, pyruvate kinase and glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase activities
Zhu 2011 [17] Inhibiting expression of p53 and Noxa
Zhu 2012 [18] Increased p70S6K and ribosomal protein S6
Zhu 2013 [19] Increased mTOR and eIF4E
Yang 2014 [20] Increased hippocampal ACh, DA, and 5-HT
Zhang 2014 [21] Increased CBF
Li 2015 [22] Increase pyramidal neuron number in hippocampal CA1 area
Li 2015 [23] • Inhibited PDE activity
• Activated ERK and cAMP/PKA/CREB
Wang 2015 [24] Enhanced Nrf2
Fang 2016 [25] Decreased TNF-α mRNA, IL-6 mRNA and IL-1β mRNA
Li 2016 [26] • Increased complex I, II, IV and cox IV
• Decreased ROS
  1. NO nitric oxide, NOS nitric oxide synthase, MDA malondialdehyde, GSH-Px glutathione peroxidase, AVP arginine vasopressin, SS somatostatin, Bcl-2 B-cell lymphoma-2, Bax Bcl-2 associated X protein, P53 Tumor protein P53, P70S6K P70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase, mTOR mammalian target of rapamycin, eIF4E eukaryotic translation initiation factor, Ach acetylcholine, DA dopamine, 5-HT 5-hydroxytryptamine, CBF cerebral blood flow, PDE phosphodiesterase, ERK extracellular signal-regulated kinase, cAMP 3′,5′-cyclic AMP/protein kinaseA, PKA protein kinaseA, CREB cAMP/PKA/cAMP response element binding protein, Nrf2 nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2, TNF tumor necrosis factor, IL interleukin, coxIV cytochrome oxidase IV, ROS reactive oxygen species