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Table 1 Characteristics of included randomized clinical trials on CAM therapies for childhood atopic eczema

From: Complementary and alternative medicine for treatment of atopic eczema in children under 14 years old: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Study ID Sample size Age Sex M/F Comparisons Outcome Follow up
CAM vs usual care, 3 studies
 Liu CH 2009 [20] T:150 C:148 T:1-6 m, 80 cases; 6-12 m, 50 cases; 1-2 y, 20 cases
C:1-6 m, 83 cases; 6-12 m, 44 cases; 1-2 y, 21 cases
T:88/62
C:86/44
Swimming therapy + Baibu (Stemona japonica) lotion (bath) + Tuina vs Cyproheptadine (oral) + Boric lotion (external application with cold lotion)/Hydrocortisone butyrate cream (external use)/Zinc oxide cream (external use) (7-15d) Improvement of symptoms and signs and signs;
IgG;
Relapse (T:26/150, 3 m; 37/150, 6 m C:80/148, 3 m; 96/148, 6 m)
3 m, 6 m
 Liu WQ 2016 [21] T:60 C:60 T:(4.5 ± 3.8) y C:(5.3 ± 4.5) y T:37/23
C:33/27
Fasting and rotation diet vs Pevisone paste (external use) (3 m) Improvement of symptoms and signs;
IgG;
Relapse (T:4/60 C:11/60)
3 m
 Wu YQ 2014 [22] T:74 C:74 T:(6.35 ± 1.36) m C:(5.98 ± 1.23) m T:41/33
C:31/43
Velvetfeeling lotion (external application) + Moisturizing cream (external use) + Saline water (dipping) vs Boric lotion (external application) + Vitamin E (external use) + Saline water (dipping) (7d) Improvement of symptoms and signs;
CGI-EI
NR
CAM + usual care vs usual care, 10 studies
 Chen DX 2015 [23] T:20 C:20 T:(3.82 ± 0.7) m C:(2.35 ± 1.3) m NR Bifid triple viable capsules (oral) + Hydrocortisone butyrate cream (external use) vs Hydrocortisone butyrate cream (external use) (180d) Improvement of symptoms and signs 6 m
 Chen YL 2015 [24] T:58 C:58 T:(11 ± 5) m
C:(12 ± 5) m
T:31/27
C:30/28
Probiotics (oral) + Chlorphenamine maleate tablets (oral) + Vitamin B6 + Fluocinonide cream (external use) + Calcium supplement (oral) vs Chlorphenamine maleate tablets (oral) + Vitamin B6 + Fluocinonide Cream (external use) + Calcium supplement (oral) (28d) Improvement of symptoms and signs;
CGI-EI;
Interleukin;
Interferon;
Relapse (T:9/58 C:29/58)
NR
 Guo YH 2015 [25] T:90 C:90 T:2 m-3 y
C:2 m-3 y
total: 98/82 Tetralogy of viable bifidobacterium tablets (oral) + Usual care (Calamine lotion/ Zinc oxide cream/ Loratadine syrup/ Mometasone furoate cream) vs Usual care (Calamine lotion/Zinc oxide cream/Loratadine syrup/Mometasone furoate cream) (30d) Improvement of symptoms and signs;
IL-4, IL-10, IFN-γ, IgE, Th1/Th2;
Relapse (T:24/90 C:62/90)
3 m
 Jiang YX 2013 [26] T:65 C:60 T:2 y
C:2 y
total: 72/53 Velvetfeeling lotion (external application) + Usual care (eg. Chlorphenamine maleate tablets) vs Usual care (eg. Chlorphenamine maleate tablets) + Boric lotion (external application) (28d) Improvement of symptoms and signs NR
 Li DY 2012 [27] T:32 C:30 T:(7.15 ± 2.06) m C:(6.89 ± 2.54) m T:17/15
C:16/14
Bifid triple viable capsules (oral) + Zinc oxide cream (external use) + Boric lotion (external application) vs Zinc oxide cream (external use) + Boric lotion (external application) (14d drugs for external use/28d Oral bifid-triple viable capsule) Improvement of symptoms and signs;
Relapse (T:6/32 C:20/30)
NR
 Mao HX 2013 [28] T:50 C:50 T:2 m-5 y
C:2 m-5 y
T:24/26
C:28/22
Probiotics (oral) + Antihistamines (oral) + Calcium supplement (oral) + Skincare cream (external use) vs Antihistamines (oral) + Calcium supplement (oral) + Skincare cream (external use) Improvement of symptoms and signs;
Relapse (T:2/50 C:12/50)
NR
 Wei MX 2010 [29] T:38 C:36 T:(6.78 ± 2.62) m C:(7.14 ± 2.10) m T:22/16
C:19/17
Viable Bacillus coagulans tablets (oral) + Boric lotion (wash-out) + Zinc oxide cream (external use) vs Boric lotion (wash-out) + Zinc oxide cream (external use) (28d) Improvement of symptoms and signs;
Relapse (T:7/38 C:24/36)
6 m
 Ye CQ 2017 [30] T:48 C:48 T:(6.9 ± 2.4) m
C:(6.8 ± 2.6) m
T:27/21
C:28/20
Condensation living bacterium bacillus (oral) + Boric lotion (wash-out) + Zinc oxide cream (external use) vs Boric lotion (wash-out) + Zinc oxide cream (external use) (28d) Improvement of symptoms and signs;
Relapse (T:6/48 C:28/48)
6 m
 Zhang MH 2013 [31] T:35 C:35 T:(5 ± 3) m
C:(6 ± 3) m
T:27/8
C:25/10
Bifico lriple viable (oral) + Boric lotion (wash-out) + Zinc oxide cream (external use) + Cetirizine hydrochloride drops (oral) vs Boric lotion (wash-out) + Zinc oxide cream (external use) + Cetirizine hydrochloride drops (oral) (30d) IFN-γ;
Interleukin;
T-Cell;
Relapse (T:6/35 C:16/58)
6 m
 Zhang XN 2013 [32] T:36 C:34 total:(7.06 ± 3.48) y total:32/38 Velvetfeeling lotion (external application) + Butyl flufenamate ointment (external use) + Antihistamine (oral) vs Saline water (external application) + Butyl flufenamate ointment (external use) + Antihistamine (oral) (14d) Improvement of symptoms and signs;
CGI-EI
NR
CAM vs placebo, 9 studies
 D. Sistek 2006 [33] T:30 C:29 T:3.8 y
C:4.4 y
T:15/14
C:17/13
Probiotics (oral) vs Placebo (oral) (12w) Improvement of symptoms and signs 4w
 Hyeon-Jong Yang 2014 [34] T:50 C:50 T:(58.7 ± 29.9) m C:(47.4 ± 28.1) m T:29/21
C:24/26
Probiotics (oral) vs Placebo (oral) (6w) Improvement of symptoms and signs;
Fecal cell counts;
IL-4;
TNF-α
NR
 Reza 2011 [35] T:19 C:21 T:(28.68 ± 40.86) m C:(22.76 ± 34.03) m T:11/8
C:14/7
Synbiotic (oral) vs Placebo (oral) (8w) Improvement of symptoms and signs
Mononuclear cells
NR
 S Weston 2017 [36] T:28 C:28 T:(11.5 ± 4.2) m C:(10.3 ± 3.2) m T:14/14
C:16/12
VRI-003 PCC freeze dried powder probiotics (oral) vs Placebo (oral) (8w) Improvement of symptoms and signs;
total IgE levels;
radioallergosorbent test
8w
 Sergei V. Gerasimov 2010 [37] T:48 C:48 T:(25.6 ± 7.7) m C:(24.1 ± 6.3) m T:28/15
after withdrew
C:28/19
after withdrew
Probiotics (oral) vs Placebo (oral) (8w) Improvement of symptoms and signs;
Quality of life;
Total IgE;
Eosinophil count
NR
 Shoko 2007 [38] T:16 C:16 T:4.44 y
C:5.56 y
T:9/7
C:12/4
Borage oil (undershirts coated with oil) vs Placebo (non-coated undershirts) (2w) Improvement of symptoms and signs;
Changes of transepidermal water loss
NR
 Wu YJ 2017 [39] T:33 C:33 T:(1.5 ± 1.1) m
C:(7.14 ± 2.10) m
T:25/8
C:19/14
Probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus) (oral) vs Placebo (oral) (8w) Improvement of symptoms and signs;
Quality of Life (Infant Dermatitis Quality of Life Questionnaires and Dermatitis Family Impact Questionnaires);
NR
 Yavuz 2012 [40] T:20 C:20 total:1-13 y total: 23/17 Probiotic bacteria (oral) vs Placebo (oral) (8w) Improvement of symptoms and signs;
cytokine analyse/IgE/Eosinophil cationic protein
10w
 Youngshin 2012 [41] T:58 C:60 T:(4.6 ± 3.3) y C:(5.1 ± 3.3) y T:34/24
C:35/25
Probiotics (L. plantarum CJLP133) (oral) vs Placebo (oral) (12w) Improvement of symptoms and signs;
total IgE levels/specific IgE
2w
Multi-armed trials, 2 studies
 Pasi E. Kankaanpa 2002 [42] T1:5
T2:5
C1:5
T1:(4.5 ± 2) m T2:(5.7 ± 2.2) m C1:(5.6 ± 2.1) m T1:2/3 T2:3/2 C1:2/3 Probiotics (Lactobacillus GG) (oral) vs Probiotics (Bifidobacterium Bb12) (oral) vs placebo (oral) (4.4 ± 1.7 m 7.3 ± 0.7 m 5.7 ± 2.0 m) Fatty acid analysis ≥36 m follow until panticipants at the age of 3 years
 C. Gore 2011 [43] T1:45
T2:45
C1:47
C2:22
C3:49
T1:19 [16-23] w T2:20.5 [17-23] w C1:20 [16-23] w C2:15 [13-19.5] w C3:19 [15-21.5] w T1:28/17 T2:24/21 C1:28/19 C2:16/6 C3:25/24 Probiotics (Lactobacillus paracasei) (oral) vs Probiotics (Bifidobacterium) (oral) vs Placebo (oral) vs Exclusively breastfed vs Standard formula-fed (12w) Improvement of symptoms and signs;
Quality of life;
Stool;
GI-Permeability;
Specific serum IgE;
Urinary EPX
NR
  1. T treatment group, C control group, y year, m month, d day, w week, NR not report