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Table 3 TNF-α and IL-27 proteins concentrations in MDCK culture supernatants (pg/ml) at 48 h treatment

From: Immunomodulatory properties of quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside from Rapanea melanophloeos against influenza a virus

Treatment TNF-α concentration (pg/ml)
(mean ± SD)
TNF-α
% change to virus sample
IL-27 concentration (pg/ml)
(mean ± SD)
IL-27% change to virus sample
Co-pen 59.36 ± 0.003** −83.687 2178.33 ± 0.001** + 135.495
Pre-pen 200.5 ± 0.007 −44.904 1866.67 ± 0.004** + 101.802
Post-pen 196.2 ± 0.010* −46.090 2043.33 ± 0.005** + 120.901
H1N1 363.9 ± 0.011   925.00 ± 0.006  
  1. Concentrations of TNF-α and IL-27 and percentages of changes compared to H1N1, as determined by ELISA, are expressed as pg/ml (N = 2) for 48 h incubation time
  2. * & **: significantly (P < 0.05) and highly significantly (P < 0.01) different from H1N1-inoculated sample