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Table 4 Rating the Evidence

From: Evidence for the use of complementary and alternative medicines during fertility treatment: a scoping review

Method Type of Outcome Level I Level II Level III-1 Level III-2 Level III-3 Level IV
Acupuncture Female Fertility (n = 32) 5 (15.6%) 12 (37.5%) 1 (3.1%) 3 (9.4%) 4 (12.5%) 7 (21.9%)
  Male Fertility (n = 9) 3 (33.3%) 1 (11.1%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (11.1%) 4 (44.4%)
  Mental Health (n = 8) 1 (12.5%) 3 (37.5%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (12.5%) 1 (12.5%) 2 (25.0%)
Ayurveda Female fertility (n = 9) 0 (0.0%) 3 (33.3%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 6 (66.7%)
  Male fertility (n = 8) 0 (0.0%) 2 (25.0%) 1 (12.5%) 3 (37.5%) 0 (0.0%) 2 (25.0%)
  Mental health (n = 1) 0 (0.0%) 1 (100.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%)
Chinese Herbal Medicine Female fertility (n = 53) 12 (22.6%) 25 (47.2%) 2 (3.8%) 3 (5.7%) 3 (5.7%) 8 (15.1%)
  Male fertility (n = 17) 2 (11.8%) 6 (35.3%) 7 (41.2%) 1 (5.9%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (5.9%)
  Mental health (n = 2) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 2 (100%)
Herbal Medicine Female fertility (n = 6) 1 (16.7%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 2 (33.3%) 3 (50.0%)
  Male fertility (n = 10) 2 (20%) 1 (10%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (10%) 6 (60.0%)
  Mental health (n = 1) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (100%) 0 (0.0%)
Homeopathy Female fertility (n = 1) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (100%)
Hypnosis Female fertility (n = 2) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (50.0%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (50.0%)
Massage Female fertility (n = 3) 0 (0.0%) 1 (33.3%) 1 (33.3%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (33.3%)
Naturopathy Female fertility (n = 1) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (100%)
Osteopathy Female fertility (n = 1) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (100%)
Relaxation Mental health (n = 8) 0 (0.0%) 1 (12.5%) 1 (12.5%) 3 (37.5%) 0 (0.0%) 3 (37.5%)
Yoga Mental health (n = 3) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (33.3%) 0 (0.0%) 2 (66.7%)
  1. n = number of studies, CAM methods which had no studies (n = 0) evaluating specific fertility outcomes were removed from the table; n.b. Articles could evaluate multiple outcomes (e.g. some articles that evaluated female fertility outcomes also evaluated male fertility outcomes)