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Table 2 Korean Medicine syndrome differentiations and diagnostic tools used for autism spectrum disorder

From: A survey of Korean medicine doctors’ clinical practice patterns for autism spectrum disorder: preliminary research for clinical practice guidelines

Factors N (%)
Do you use Korean Medicine syndrome differentiation? Yes 48 (88.9)
No 6 (11.1)
Korean Medicine syndrome differentiation theories
(multiple responses allowed)
Organ system, Qi, Blood, Yin, Yang, Fluid and Humor diagnosis (臟腑氣血陰陽津液辨證) based on KM textbooks 45 (68.2)
Four-constitutional medicine diagnosis (四象醫學辨證)’ based on ‘Dongeuisoosebowon (東醫壽世保元)’ 12 (18.2)
Six meridian diagnosis (六經辨證) based on ‘Shang Han Lun (傷寒論)’ 7 (10.6)
Meridian system diagnosis (經絡辨證) 2 (3)
Title of frequently used syndrome differentiation
(multiple responses allowed)
Heart deficiency with timidity (心虛膽怯) 23 (12.8)
Liver qi depression (肝鬱氣結) 18 (10)
Phlegm confounding the orifices of the heart (痰迷心竅) 18 (10)
Dual deficiency of heart and spleen (心脾兩虛) 18 (10)
Qi deficiency (氣虛) 14 (7.8)
Kidney essence deficiency (腎精虧虛) 14 (7.8)
Dual deficiency of qi and blood (氣血兩虛) 12 (6.7)
Liver-kidney yin deficiency (肝腎陰虛) 12 (6.7)
Kidney qi insufficiency (腎氣不足) 12 (6.7)
Blood deficiency (血虛) 11 (6.1)
Diagnostic tool
(multiple responses allowed)
the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) 28 (26.7)
the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5) 25 (23.8)
Not using diagnostic tools but deciding by symptoms 16 (15.2)
Not using diagnostic tools but referral to other hospital or specialist 15 (14.3)
Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) 10 (9.52)