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Table 2 Results of the meta-analysis of the change in SBP (mmHg) in the two subgroup analyses of SBP levels of 1) ≥ 130 and 2) < 130 mmHg before the intervention

From: Blood pressure-lowering effect of Shinrin-yoku (Forest bathing): a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study or Subgroup Sinrin-yoku
Total
Control
Total
Weight (%) Mean Difference
IV, Fixed
95% CI
1) SBP ≥ 130 mmHg
Tsunetsugu et al., 2007–2 [20] 8 * 13.1 −10.00 −18.35 - -1.65
Tsunetsugu et al., 2007–1 [20, 40] 11 * 4.8 1.10 −12.64 - 14.84
Kondo et al., 2011b [28, 29] 8 * 33.3 −4.00 −9.23 - 1.23
Li et al., 2011 [10] 16 * 8.5 −3.00 −13.33 - 7.33
Sung et al., 2012 [25] 28 28 15.1 −8.70 −16.48 - -0.92
Mao et al., 2012 [25] 12 12 7.1 −11.50 −22.87 - -0.13
Kondo et al., 2014–1 [16] 7 * 7.5 −10.40 −21.43 - 0.63
Kondo et al., 2014–2 [16] 6 * 10.7 −5.50 −14.73 - 3.73
2) SBP < 130 mmHg
Ogushi et al., 2000 [18] 37 20 3.1 −5.00 −14.58 - 4.58
Takayanagi & Hagihara, 2005 [19] 12 12 1.7 −6.10 −19.02 - 6.82
Furuhashi et al., 2007 [22] 12 * 23.4 −3.90 −7.37 - -0.43
Tsunetsugu et al., 2007–1 [20, 40] 9 * 9.8 −2.50 −7.87 - 2.87
Tsunetsugu et al., 2007–2 [20] 11 * 9.5 −6.20 −11.65 - -0.75
Kozaki et al., 2007–1 [21] 11 * 3.0 −1.00 −10.62 - 8.62
Kozaki et al., 2007–2 [21] 11 * 3.6 −1.30 −7.60 - 10.20
Kondo et al., 2011a [27, 29] 8 * 8.8 −4.00 −9.66 - 1.66
Lee et al., 2011 [24] 48 * 33.0 −3.00 −5.92 - -0.08
Lee & Lee, 2014 [11] 43 19 4.3 −12.25 −20.36 - -4.14
Total 202 51** 100.0 −3.85 −5.53 - -2.17
  1. Heterogeneity: Chi2 = 4.73, df = 7 (P = 0.69); I2 = 0%
  2. Test for overall effect: Z = 4.11 (P < 0.0001)
  3. Heterogeneity: Chi2 = 7.20, df = 9 (P = 0.62); I2 = 0%
  4. Test for overall effect: Z = 4.50 (P < 0.00001)
  5. CI, confidence interval; df, degrees of freedom
  6. *Cross-over design (same number as in Shinrin-yoku)
  7. **Total number excluding the cross-over design