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Table 1 Result of the meta-analysis comparing changes in SBP (mmHg) between the forest environment and the non-forest environment based on 20 studies or subgroups

From: Blood pressure-lowering effect of Shinrin-yoku (Forest bathing): a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study or Subgroup Sinrin-yoku
Total
Control
Total
Weight (%) Mean Difference
IV, Fixed
95% CI
Ogushi et al., 2000 [18] 37 20 1.0 −5.00 −14.58 - 4.58
Takayanagi & Hagihara, 2005 [19] 12 12 0.6 −6.10 −19.02 - 6.82
Tsunetsugu et al., 2007–2 [20] 11 * 3.2 −6.20 −11.65 - -0.75
Tsunetsugu et al., 2007–1 [20, 40] 9 * 3.3 −2.50 −7.87 - 2.87
Furuhashi et al., 2007 [22] 12 * 7.8 −3.90 −7.37 - -0.43
Kozaki et al., 2007–1 [21] 11 * 1.0 −1.00 −10.62 - 8.62
Kozaki et al., 2007–2 [21] 11 * 1.2 −1.30 −7.60 - 10.20
Takeda et al., 2009–2 [30,31,32,33,34,35] 8 * 1.3 −10.00 −18.35 - -1.65
Takeda et al., 2009–1 [30,31,32,33,34,35] 11 * 0.5 1.10 −12.64 - 14.84
Park et al., 2010–2 [23] 75 * 20.9 −2.16 −4.28 - -0.04
Park et al., 2010–1 [23] 268 * 35.4 −2.16 −3.79 - -0.53
Li et al., 2011 [10] 16 * 0.9 −3.00 −13.33 - 7.33
Lee et al., 2011 [24] 48 * 11.0 −3.00 −5.92 - -0.08
Kondo et al., 2011a [27, 29] 8 * 2.9 −4.00 −9.66 - 1.66
Kondo et al., 2011b [28, 29] 8 * 3.4 −4.00 −9.23 - 1.23
Sung et al., 2012 [25] 28 28 1.5 −8.70 −16.48 - -0.92
Mao et al., 2012 [26] 12 12 0.7 −11.50 −22.87 - -0.13
Kondo et al., 2014–1 [16] 7 * 0.8 −10.40 −21.43 - 0.63
Kondo et al., 2014–2 [16] 6 * 1.1 −5.50 −14.73 - 3.73
Lee & Lee, 2014 [11] 43 19 1.4 −12.25 −20.36 - -4.14
Total 641 91** 100.0 −3.15 −4.12 - -2.18
  1. CI, confidence interval; df, degrees of freedom
  2. *Cross-over design (same number as in Shinrin-yoku)
  3. **Total number excluding the cross-over design