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Table 3 Results of assessments on the variables related to the radial artery pressure-pulse wave

From: Hemodynamic changes caused by acupuncture in healthy volunteers: a prospective, single-arm exploratory clinical study

Variables Assessment schedule
−5 min 0 +7 min +14 min +20 min +27 min
Baseline (Reference)a Needle insertiona During needle retentiona Needle removala Finala
SE10-30Hz
(10−3∙Vrms2)
1.76
(−0.39, 3.92)
−0.05
(−0.71, 0.61)
−0.45
(−1.11, 0.21)
−0.26
(−0.92, 0.40)
−0.34
(−1.00, 0.32)
−0.77*
(−1.44, −0.11)
SE0-10Hz
(10−1∙Vrms2)
7.78
(5.37, 10.19)
0.49
(−0.33, 1.31)
0.95*
(0.13, 1.76)
1.20**
(0.38, 2.02)
1.39***
(0.58, 2.21)
1.79***
(0.98, 2.61)
PPI (V) 3.20
(2.68, 3.71)
0.12
(−0.05, 0.28)
0.12
(−0.05, 0.28)
0.24**
(0.08, 0.41)
0.27***
(0.11, 0.44)
0.31***
(0.15, 0.48)
PDI (mm) 6.96
(4.98, 8.94)
0.08
(−0.44, 0.59)
−0.22
(−0.73, 0.29)
−0.22
(−0.73, 0.30)
−0.45
(−0.96, 0.06)
−0.34
(−0.85, 0.17)
PVI (mm) 2.51
(1.99, 3.03)
0.21
(−0.08, 0.51)
0.46***
(0.16, 0.71)
0.32*
(0.03, 0.61)
0.13
(−0.16, 0.42)
0.27
(−0.03, 0.56)
Systolic area (Vs) 575.61
(490.04, 661.18)
32.09
(−6.91, 71.10)
23.72
(−15.29, 62.72)
54.50**
(15.50, 93.51)
61.68***
(22.68, 100.68)
92.49***
(53.48, 131.49)
Diastolic area (Vs) 220.79
(196.43, 245.15)
3.76
(−8.40, 15.92)
2.39
(−9.77, 14.55)
10.25
(−1.91, 22.41)
12.19*
(0.03, 24.35)
18.09**
(5.93, 30.25)
SEVR (%) 39.33
(33.43, 45.23)
−1.58
(−4.04, 0.88)
−1.60
(−4.06, 0.86)
−2.58*
(−5.04, −0.12)
−2.48*
(−4.94, −0.02)
−3.35**
(−5.81, −0.89)
AIX (%) 39.28
(28.40, 50.17)
1.81
(−5.98, 9.60)
0.49
(−7.30, 8.28)
−2.93
(−10.72, 4.86)
1.12
(−6.66, 8.91)
1.70
(−6.09, 9.49)
PTT (ms) 284.97
(267.79, 302.15)
0.67
(−5.18, 6.52)
3.17
(−2.69, 9.02)
1.80
(−4.05, 7.65)
4.87
(−0.99, 10.72)
4.22
(−1.64, 10.07)
  1. SE 10-30Hz spectral energy of 10 to 30 Hz, SE 0-10Hz spectral energy of 0 to 10 Hz, PPI pulse power index, PDI pulse depth index, PVI pulse volume index, SEVR subendocardial viability ratio, AIX radial augmentation index, PTT pulse transit time
  2. aValues represent adjusted mean differences between the baseline and each assessment during the needling procedure as well as their 95% CI based on the result of LMM for each parameter. Mean differences were adjusted for age, sex, height, pulse rate, BMI, GPAQ, CEQ and experience of acupuncture. Dunnett’s test was applied to control the family-wise error rate due to the multiple comparisons of the mean difference between baseline and each assessment stage for each variable. The statistical significance was indicated with asterisks: ***,p < 0.001; **,p < 0.01; *,p < 0.05