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Table 2 The medicinal plants used for the treatment of some urinary tract diseases, the plant parts used, use values, choice value, frequency of citation, modes and methods of preparation

From: Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants practiced by traditional healers and herbalists for treatment of some urological diseases in the West Bank/Palestine

Scientific names Arabic local names English common names Family Voucher specimen codes Urinary tract diseases Part used and mode of preparation Method of preparation # Informant 144 FC, % UV CV
Paronychia argentea Lam. رجل الحمام Chickweed, Algerian tea Caryophyllaceae Pharm-PCT-1793 Kidney stones Entire plant/Boil about 100 g of the plant in 100 ml water. 30 ml of this decoction is to be given orally before each meal. Decoction 140 97.22 0.97 1.71
Curcuma longa L. كركم Turmeric Zingiberaceae Pharm-PCT-2709 Enuresis Roots/Steep 150 g of the roots in 200 ml water for two hours. This infusion is to be given after each meal. Infusion 135 93.75 0.94 1.64
Plantago ovata Forssk. لسان الحمل البيضوي Blond Psyllium Plantaginaceae Pharm-PCT-1891 Kidney stones Seeds/About 50 g of dried and ground seeds are to be given orally once daily. Powder 134 93.06 0.93 1.63
Portulaca oleracea L. فرفحينه Common Purslane Portulacaceae Pharm-PCT-1935 Renal failure Entire plant/10 drops of the fresh plant juice are to be given twice daily. Juice 134 93.06 0.93 1.63
Punica granatum L. رمان Pomegranate Lythraceae Pharm-PCT-2721 Kidney stones Fruits/300 ml of Pomegranate juice obtained from the fruits is to be given five times a day. Juice 133 92.36 0.92 1.62
Juglans regia L. جوز Walnuts Juglandaceae Pharm-PCT-2714 Prostatic enlargement Bark/Boil 100 g from the ground bark in 300 ml water for 30 min. 50 ml of this decoction is to be given twice daily. Decoction 132 91.67 0.92 1.61
Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik. کیس الراعي Shepherd’s-Purse Brassicaceae Pharm-PCT-497 Urinary tract infection Fruits/ Boil about 100 g from the ground fruits in 300 ml water. Give 100 ml three times a day after meals. Decoction 132 91.67 0.92 1.61
Quercus infectoria subsp. veneris (A.Kern.) Meikle بلوطحلبي Aleppo Oak Fagaceae Pharm-PCT-1977 Prostatic enlargement Entire plant/Boil about 50 g of the any plant part in 200 ml water. 50 ml of this decoction is to be given four times a day with meals. Decoction 119 82.64 0.83 1.45
Crocus sativus L. زعفران Saffron Iridaceae Pharm-PCT-2733 Enuresis Flowers/Steep 40 g of the flowers in 100 ml boiled water for 8 h. 15 ml from this infusion is to be given two times a day Infusion 118 81.94 0.82 1.44
Hibiscus sabdariffa L. كركديه Roselle Malvaceae Pharm-PCT-2752 Urinary tract infection Flower/Boil about 150 g of the plant in 100 ml water. 40 ml of this decoction is to be given orally before each meal. Decoction 112 77.78 0.78 1.36
Ammi visnaga (L.) Lam. الخله المصريه Khella Apiaceae Pharm-PCT-139 Urinary tract infection Fruits/Boil about 250 g of the plant in 500 ml water. 100 ml of this decoction is to be given orally three to five times a day. Decoction 102 70.83 0.71 1.24
Ammi majus L. الخله الشيطانيه Bishop’s Flower, Bishop’s weed Apiaceae Pharm-PCT-138 Urinary tract infection Fruits/Boil about 30 g of fruits in 100 ml water for 5 min. This decoction is to be given three times a day after meals. Decoction 98 68.06 0.68 1.19
Taraxacum syriacum Boiss. هندباء Silkweed Compositae Pharm-PCT-2396 Kidney stones Roots/Boil about 300 g of the plant in 500 ml water. 100 ml of this decoction is to be given orally before each meal. Decoction 95 65.97 0.66 1.16
Sambucus ebulus L. البيلسان Danewort Adoxaceae Pharm-PCT-2135 Enuresis, prostatic enlargement. Leaves/Steep 200 g of the powdered leaves in 500 ml boiled water for 12 h. About 100 ml from this infusion is to be given three times daily. Infusion 92 63.89 0.64 1.12
Morus alba L. توت ابيض White Mulberry Moraceae Pharm-PCT-2750 Kidney stones Fruits/150 ml of fresh juice are to be given orally every two hours. Juice 91 63.19 0.63 1.11
Zea mays L. ذره Maize Poaceae Pharm-PCT-2747 Prostatic enlargement, urinary tract infections Flower stigmas (corn silk) Infusion 72 50.00 0.58 1.02
Foeniculum vulgare Mill. شومر Fennel Apiaceae Pharm-PCT-1041 Kidney stones, urinary tract infection Fruits/ Boil about 50 g of the fruits in 50 ml water. 25 ml of this decoction is to be given three times a day. Decoction 78 54.17 0.54 0.95
Daucus carota L. جزر بري Wild carrot Apiaceae Pharm-PCT-829 Urinary tract infection Fruits/ Boil about 150 g of the powder in 600 ml water. About 150 ml of this decoction is to be given three times a day. Decoction 69 47.92 0.48 0.84
Buddleja coriacea Remy عفار Butterfly bush Scrophulariaceae Pharm-PCT-2746 Enuresis Flowers/Boil about 20 g of the flowers in 200 ml water. About 50 ml of this decoction is to be given once daily. Infusion 67 46.53 0.47 0.82
Persea americana Mill. افوكادو Avocado Lauraceae Pharm-PCT-2740 Enuresis Leaves/Boil about 50 g of leaves in 150 ml water for 5 min. This decoction is to be given three times a day after meals. Decoction 66 45.83 0.46 0.80
Cucurbita pepo L. قرع Pumpkin Cucurbitaceae Pharm-PCT-2762 Prostatic enlargement Seeds/ Boil about 100 g of the seeds in 600 ml water. About 50 ml of this decoction is to be given three times a day. Decoction 66 45.83 0.46 0.80
Equisetum ramosissimum Desf. كنباث أفرع Branched Horsetail Equisetaceae Pharm-PCT-915 Renal failure Entire plant/ Boil about 50 g of the powder in 600 ml water. About 100 ml of this decoction is to be given three times a day. Decoction 66 45.83 0.46 0.80
Ferula communis L. كلخ Common Giant Fennel Apiaceae Pharm-PCT-1016 Kidney stones Fruits/Steep 50 g of the plant in 150 ml boiled water for 12 h. 10 ml from this infusion is to be given two times a day Infusion 65 45.14 0.45 0.79
Rosa canina L. ورد السياج Rose hips, Dog-rose Rosaceae Pharm-PCT-2052 Urinary tract infection Fruits/Boil about 70 g of leaves in 150 ml water for 15 min. This decoction is to be given three times a day after meals. Decoction 65 45.14 0.45 0.79
Ficus sycomorus L. جميز Fig-Mulberry Moraceae Pharm-PCT-1030 Urinary tract infection, renal failure Fruits/Extract 100 ml of juice to be given orally five times a day. Juice 63 43.75 0.44 0.77
Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss بقدونس Garden Parsley Apiaceae Pharm-PCT-2739 Prostatic enlargement, urinary tract infections, kidney stones Fruits/Boil about 100 g from the powdered fruits in 600 ml water. About 150 ml from this decoction is to be given 4–5 times daily. Decoction 44 30.56 0.43 0.76
Acacia senegal (L.) Willd. الصمغ العربي Arabic Gum Leguminosae Pharm-PCT-2755 Kidney stones Gum/About 20 g of gum are to be given orally twice daily with a cup of milk. Powder 61 42.36 0.42 0.74
Raphanus raphanistrum L. فجل بري Radish Brassicaceae Pharm-PCT-2007 Kidney stones Seeds/ Boil about 250 g of the powder in 750 ml water. About 150 ml of this decoction is to be given three times a day. Decoction 59 40.97 0.41 0.72
Olea europaea L. زيتون Olive Oleaceae Pharm-PCT-1664 Renal failure Fruits/Three table spoons of Olive oil is to be given orally twice a day. Oil 57 39.58 0.40 0.69
Apium graveolens L. كرفس Celery Apiaceae Pharm-PCT-204 Prostatic enlargement Entire plant/Ten drops of Celery entire plant juice are to be given orally three times a day. Juice 56 38.89 0.39 0.68
Astracantha gummifera (Labill.) Podlech الكثيراء Tragacanth Leguminosae Pharm-PCT-2754 Kidney stones Gum/About 50 g of gum are to be given orally three times daily with 2 cups of water. Powder 55 38.19 0.38 0.67
Urtica pilulifera L. القريص الشائك Roman Nettle Urticaceae Pharm-PCT-2561 Kidney stones, Urinary tract infections Roots/Boil about 20 g of the powder in 100 ml water. About 30 ml of this decoction is to be given three times a day. Decoction 55 38.19 0.38 0.67
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. عنب الدب Bearberry Ericaceae Pharm-PCT-2705 Urinary tract infection Leaves/Boil about 90 g from the dried leaves in 400 ml water. About 50 ml from this decoction is to be given 3–5 times daily. Decoction 55 38.19 0.38 0.67
Cinnamomum verum J.Presl قرفه Cinnamon Lauraceae Pharm-PCT-2707 Prostatic enlargement Bark/ Boil about 80 g from the dried powdered plant in 400 ml water. About 50 ml from this decoction is to be given 3–5 times daily. Decoction 54 37.50 0.38 0.66
Angelica archangelica L. حشيشة الملاك Wild Celery Apiaceae Pharm-PCT-2758 Kidney stones Roots/Boil about 100 g from the dried powdered plant in 500 ml water. About 50 ml from this decoction is to be given 4–5 times daily. Decoction 51 35.42 0.35 0.62
Lolium temulentum L. زوان مسكر Darnel Poaceae Pharm-PCT-1453 Enuresis Seeds/Boil about 200 g from the dried powdered plant in 500 ml water. About 100 ml from this decoction is to be given twice daily. Decoction 44 30.56 0.31 0.54
Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal سموه Ashwagandha Solanaceae Pharm-PCT-2678 Kidney stones Roots/Boil about 50 g of the powder in 100 ml water. About 50 ml of this decoction is to be given three times a day after meals. Decoction 43 29.86 0.30 0.52
Origanum jordanicum Danin & Kunne زعتر Thyme Lamiaceae Pharm-PCT-1729 Kidney stones Leaves/Boil about 60 g of leaves in 200 ml water for 5 min. This decoction is to be given three times a day after meals. Decoction 42 29.17 0.29 0.51
Barbarea vulgaris R.Br. جرجير بري Rocketcress Brassicaceae Pharm-PCT-2757 Urinary tract infection Leaves/Steep 40 g of the powdered leaves in 100 ml water for12 hours. About 30 ml from this infusion is to be given three times daily. Infusion 42 29.17 0.29 0.51
Jateorhiza palmata (Lam.) Miers ساق الحمام Calumba Menispermaceae Pharm-PCT-2753 Urinary infections Flowers/Steep 200 g of the powdered flowers in 800 ml water for 8 h. About 50 ml from this infusion is to be given three times daily. Infusion 40 27.78 0.28 0.49
Viola kitaibeliana Schult. بنفسج Dwarf Pansy Violaceae Pharm-PCT-2656 Kidney stones Seeds/About 10 drops of seeds oil is to be given orally twice daily. Oil 35 24.31 0.24 0.43
Glycyrrhiza glabra L. عرق السوس Licorice Leguminosae Pharm-PCT-1128 Enuresis Roots/Steep 50 g of the powdered roots in 300 ml water for 12 h. About 100 ml from this infusion is to be given four times daily. Infusion 34 23.61 0.24 0.41
Ocimum basilicum L. ريحان Basil Lamiaceae Pharm-PCT-2717 Kidney stones Leaves/Steep100 grams of the powdered leaves in 400 ml water for 6 h. About 50 ml from this infusion is to be given five times daily. Infusion 32 22.22 0.22 0.39
Hypericum perforatum L. سانت جون St John’s Wort Hypericaceae Pharm-PCT-2734 Kidney stones Flowers Boil about 30 g of plant in 100 ml water for 25 min. This decoction is to be given three times a day after meals. Decoction 32 22.22 0.22 0.39
Fragaria vesca L. فراوله Strawberry Rosaceae Pharm-PCT-2763 Urinary tract infection Fruits/ Extract 150 ml of juice to be given orally four times a day. Juice 29 20.14 0.20 0.35
Cyperus longus L. بردي Sweet Cyperus Cyperaceae Pharm-PCT-808 Renal failure Entire plant/ Boil about 10 g from the dried powdered plant in 100 ml water. About 20 ml from this decoction is to be given 5–6 times daily. Decoction 22 15.28 0.15 0.27
Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. حنظل Bitter apple Cucurbitaceae Pharm-PCT-628 Kidney stones Seed/ Steep 40 g of the grounded seeds in 100 ml water for 12 h. 25 ml from this infusion is to be given three times a day Infusion 21 14.58 0.15 0.26
Brassica nigra (L.) K.Koch خردل اسود Black mustard Brassicaceae Pharm-PCT-408 Kidney stones Seeds/ Steep 50 g of the powder in 300 ml water for four hours. 100 ml of this infusion is to be given 4–5 times a day. Infusion 18 12.50 0.13 0.22
Helichrysum sanguineum (L.) Kostel. دم المسيح Red everlasting Compositae Pharm-PCT-1170 Renal failure Entire plant/ Steep 100 g of the powdered plant in 100 ml water for 8 h. About 30 ml from this infusion is to be given three times a day. Infusion 17 11.81 0.12 0.21
Lupinus angustifolius L. الترمس ضيق الأوراق Blue lupin Leguminosae Pharm-PCT-1477 Urinary tract infection Roots/ Boil 50 g of the roots in 500 ml water for 30 min. 100 ml of this decoction is to be given twice a day. Decoction 16 11.11 0.11 0.19
Phaseolus vulgaris L. فاصولياء Common Bean Leguminosae Pharm-PCT-2748 Renal failure Seeds/ Boil about 40 g of the seeds in 500 ml water. 100 ml of this decoction is to be given three times a day with meals. Decoction 13 9.03 0.09 0.16
Vitex agnus-castus L. كف مريم Chaste Tree Lamiaceae Pharm-PCT-2663 Renal failure Fruits/ Extract 200 ml of juice to be given orally five times a day. Juice 13 9.03 0.09 0.16
Prunus avium (L.) L. كرز حلو Wild cherry Rosaceae Pharm-PCT-2751 Kidney stones Fruits/ About 100 ml of fresh Wild Cherry juice are to be given orally four times a day. Juice 8 5.56 0.06 0.10
Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. قصب بري Common Reed Poaceae Pharm-PCT-1843 Renal failure Roots/ Boil about 200 g of the roots in 500 ml water. 100 ml of this decoction is to be given four times a day. Decoction 8 5.56 0.06 0.10
Malvella sherardiana (L.) Jaub. & Spach خبيزة بريه Field Mallow Malvaceae Pharm-PCT-1508 Renal failure Leaves/ Steep 20 g of the powdered leaves in 150 ml water for 2–3 h. About 50 ml from this infusion is to be given three times daily. Infusion 7 4.86 0.05 0.09
Capsicum annuum L. الفليفلة الشجيرية Chili pepper Solanaceae Pharm-PCT-2729 Urinary tract infections Fruits/ About 10 g of ground dried fruits are to be given orally twice daily with a cup of water. Powder 7 4.86 0.05 0.09
Carica papaya L. ببايا Papaya Caricaceae Pharm-PCT-2761 Kidney stones Seeds/ About 10 g of ground seeds are to be given orally twice daily. Powder 5 3.47 0.03 0.06