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Fig. 3 | BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Fig. 3

From: Hydro-ethanolic leaf extract of Ziziphus abyssinica Hochst Ex A. Rich (Rhamnaceae) exhibits anti-nociceptive effects in murine models

Fig. 3

Effect of EthE (30-300 mg/kg, p.o.) and Morphine (1-10 mg/kg, i.p.) on the time-course curves (a and c) and the total nociceptive score (calculated as AUCs) (b and d) in formalin-induced nociceptive test in mice. Each data represents the mean of 5 animals and the error bars indicate S.E.M. The symbols * and † indicate significance levels compared to respective controls: ***P < 0.001, **P < 0.01 and *P ≤ 0.05 (two – way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni’s post hoc). †††P < 0.001 ††P < 0.01 and †P ≤ 0.05 (one-way ANOVA followed by Newman Keuls’ post hoc)

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