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Table 2 Summary of between group changes on clinical outcomes

From: Effect of a 16-week Bikram yoga program on heart rate variability and associated cardiovascular disease risk factors in stressed and sedentary adults: A randomized controlled trial

Outcome Measure Yoga (n = 29) Control (n = 34) Unadjusted Mean difference (95% CI) P (between groups) Effect Size (partial η 2)
Week 0 Week 17 Week 0 Week 17    
Heart Rate Variability
 Ln HF power (absolute) 6.39 ± 1.30 6.27 ± 1.30 5.67 ± 1.46 5.76 ± 1.48 −0.503 (−1.203 – 0.196) 0.912 0.000
 Ln LF power (absolute) 6.14 ± 1.17 5.93 ± 1.09 5.66 ± 1.10 5.44 ± 1.19 −0.488 (−1.063 – 0.088) 0.424 0.011
 Ln LF:HF ratio −0.244 ± 0.95 −0.337 ± 0.92 −0.002 ± 1.17 −0.213 ± 1.17 0.124 (−0.406 – 0.653) 0.978 0.000
 Ln total power 7.52 ± 1.01 7.33 ± 1.05 7.02 ± 0.94 6.92 ± 1.06 −0.406 (−0.940 – 0.128) 0.755 0.002
 pNN50 21.81 ± 21.35 21.46 ± 22.71 18.72 ± 20.74 21.80 ± 24.49 0.338 (−11.566 – 12.243) 0.353 0.014
 Ln SDNN 3.99 ± 0.46 3.95 ± 0.48 3.74 ± 0.44 3.77 ± 0.50 −0.183 (−0.429 – 0.063) 0.948 0.000
 Ln RMSSD 3.78 ± 0.65 3.80 ± 0.68 3.50 ± 0.68 3.61 ± 0.68 −0.188 (−0.531 – 0.156) 0.942 0.000
 Ln Triangular Index 5.91 ± 0.45 5.92 ± 0.43 5.85 ± 0.48 5.83 ± 0.51 −0.098 (−0.333 – 0.138) 0.486 0.008
Hemodynamic measures
 Resting heart rate (bpm) 64.1 ± 8.0 62.9 ± 8.3 65.4 ± 9.1 62.2 ± 8.7 −0.784 (−5.084 – 3.516) 0.248 0.022
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 120.3 ± 11.1 119.1 ± 10.3 119.8 ± 9.1 119.6 ± 8.9 0.49 (−4.419 – 5.399) 0.517 0.007
 Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 74.7 ± 7.9 73.5 ± 8.0 76.1 ± 6.4 74.3 ± 7.2 0.875 (−2.970 – 4.721) 0.769 0.001
Augmentation index (@75 bpm)a 16.1 ± 9.8 16.2 ± 8.8 12.9 ± 13.1 13.5 ± 11.3 −2.678 (−7.842 – 2.487) 0.294 0.022
Hematological measures        
 Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 5.15 ± 0.84 5.15 ± 0.69 5.03 ± 0.91 4.98 ± 1.11 −0.169 (−0.628 – 0.289) 0.635 0.004
 HDL (mmol/L) 1.59 ± 0.52 1.53 ± 0.47 1.40 ± 0.38 1.37 ± 0.34 −0.157 (−0.369 – 0.055) 0.886 0.000
 TC/HDL ratio 3.53 ± 1.24 3.65 ± 1.20 3.83 ± 1.25 3.84 ± 1.26 0.187 (−0.435 – 0.808) 0.450 0.010
 LDL (mmol/L)a 2.94 ± 0.75 3.07 ± 0.71 3.03 ± 0.84 3.02 ± 1.01 −0.045 (−0.481 – 0.390) 0.412 0.011
 Triglycerides (mmol/L) 1.27 ± 0.93 1.22 ± 0.64 1.28 ± 0.81 1.28 ± 0.65 0.065 (−0.260 – 0.391) 0.522 0.007
 Fasting blood glucose (mmol/L) 5.01 ± 0.58 5.04 ± 0.57 4.94 ± 0.44 4.94 ± 0.52 −0.100 (−0.377 – 0.177) 0.672 0.003
 Ln hsCRP 0.64 ± 1.35 0.51 ± 1.27 0.80 ± 1.23 0.78 ± 1.22 0.268 (−0.363 – 0.900) 0.430 0.010
Body Compositiona
 Body weight (kg) 86.4 ± 21.2 86.2 ± 21.3 90.4 ± 21.0 91.3 ± 21.3 4.328 (−6.279 – 14.935) 0.618 0.004
 Body mass index (kg/m2) 29.9 ± 6.2 29.8 ± 6.2 30.9 ± 6.3 31.0 ± 6.3 1.186 (−1.977 – 4.349) 0.496 0.008
 Waist circumference (cm) 93.9 ± 14.5 92.6 ± 14.7 95.3 ± 15.1 95.0 ± 14.1 2.399 (−4.898 – 9.696) 0.204 0.027
 Fat mass (kg) 34.5 ± 14.5 34.4 ± 14.4 38.0 ± 14.0 37.5 ± 13.8 3.141 (−4.066 – 10.348) 0.714 0.002
 Lean mass (kg) 48.8 ± 10.4 48.8 ± 10.7 48.3 ± 11.0 48.9 ± 10.8 0.117 (−5.390 – 5.624) 0.126 0.039
 Fat-free mass (kg) 51.7 ± 10.9 51.8 ± 11.2 51.4 ± 11.4 52.0 ± 10.9 0.150 (−5.575 – 5.876) 0.147 0.035
 Body fat (%) 40.4 ± 9.3 40.4 ± 9.3 43.2 ± 8.7 42.6 ± 8.8 2.188 (−2.442 – 6.819) 0.231 0.024
  1. Data reported as mean (standard deviation). Abbreviations HF high frequency, LF low frequency, pNN50 percentage of absolute differences between successive normal RR intervals that exceed 50 ms, SDNN standard deviation of the normal-normal interval, RMSSD root-mean-square of the successive normal sinus RR interval difference, HDL high-density lipoprotein, TC/HDL ratio of total cholesterol to HDL, LDL low-density lipoprotein, hsCRP high sensitivity c-reactive protein
  2. * = p < 0.05
  3. a = sample size differs to main data set. DEXA data: yoga group n = 28. AIx: baseline yoga group n = 22, baseline control group n = 30, completion yoga group n = 27. LDL: baseline yoga group n = 28