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Table 1 Selected Sudanese medicinal plant species used in traditional medicine

From: Inhibitory activities of selected Sudanese medicinal plants on Porphyromonas gingivalis and matrix metalloproteinase-9 and isolation of bioactive compounds from Combretum hartmannianum (Schweinf) bark

No Botanical names Family Vernacular name Part used Traditional uses
1 Calotropis procera (Aiton) Dryand Apocynaceae Ushar Leaves Fever, joint pains, muscular spasm, constipation, against scorpion bites, jaundice [45], healing thorn injuries [46], anti-rheumatic [47, 48].
2 Arestolochia bracteolate Lam. Aristochiaceae Um- Galagel Whole plant Malaria, HIV-1 [49, 50].
3 Xanthium brasilicum Vell. Asteraceae Ramtouk Leaves Venereal diseases, malaria [51, 52]
4 Vernonia amygdalina Delile   Gharib elwadi Leaves Fever, gastro-intestinal disease “GID” [53].
5 Adanosonia digitata L. Bombacaceae Tabaldi Fruit pulp The fruits are used as a cold beverage, added to yoghurt for treatment of diarrhea and amoebic dysentery [54].
6 Terminalia laxiflora Engl. Combretaceae Darut Wood Malaria, cough treatments, heartwood for fumigant [55, 56].
7 Terminalia brownii Fresen   Sobagh, Shaff Wood, bark Against cough and bronchitis [47], anti-rheumatic [48].
8 Combretum hartmannianum (Schweinf)   Habil Wood, bark Febrile, jaundice, bacterial infections [37, 38].
9 Ambrosia maritima L. Compositae Damsisa Aerial part The herbs are used in treatment of urinary tract infections and elimination of kidney stones, whereas the leaves are used as anti-diabetic and anti-hypertensive [57].
10 Euphorbia hirta L. Euphorbiaceae Um libina Aerial part Decoction of plant is use in asthma and bronchitis [58].
11 Ricinus communis L.   Khirwe Leaves The leaves are used as a poultice in treatment of abscesses [59, 60].
12 Acacia seyal var. fistula (Schweinf.) Leguminosae Sfar abide Wood, bark Fumigation, rheumatic pain [61].
13 Acacia seyal var. seyal Del.   Talih Wood, bark Anti-rheumatic, mouth detergent [62].
14 Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne   Seyyal Wood, bark Treat skin infection, allergic dermatomes [63].
15 Cassia acutifolia Delile   Senna makka Leaves Laxative [64], against GID [48].
16 Parkinsonia aculeata L.   Sesaban Leaves Antipyretic, anti- diabetics [63].
17 Senna italica Mill.   Sin elkalb Leaves Intestinal complications, haemomorphoids, circulatory system problems, calculi in the urinary system, sexually transmitted diseases [65].
18 Khaya senegalensis (Desv) A. Juss Meliaceae Mahogany Bark Anti-malarial, against hepatic inflammation, sinusitis, skin diseases, GID, trachoma [48].
19 Polygonum glabrum Willd Polygonaceae Altomsahia Leaves Anthelminthic, antimalarial [66].
20 Argemone mexicana L. Papaveraceae Argemone Leaves, seed Venereal diseases [52].
21 Solanum dubium Fresen Solanaceae Gibben Fruits The whole plant and fruits are pulped and applied to wounds and skin tumors as a dressing [67].
22 Salvadora persica L. Salvadoraceae Alarak Leaves, stem Gingivitis, malaria liver swellings, HIV-1 [50, 68, 69].
23 Tamarix nilotica (Ehrenb.)Bunge Tamaricaceae Tarft al nil Stem Febrile, colds [69].
24 Tribulus terrestri L. Zygophyllaceae Derresia Aerial part Demulcent, renal nephritis [47].