Skip to main content

Table 3 Pre-intervention and post-intervention inflammatory markers in smokers

From: Effects of honey supplementation on inflammatory markers among chronic smokers: a randomized controlled trial

  Smokers with honey (n = 32) Smokers without honey (n = 32)
  Pre-intervention Post-intervention Pre-intervention Post-intervention
TNF-α (pg/mL) 2615.86 (145.31) 3855.92 (217.83)* 3026.64 (128.74) 2893.59 (68.36)
IL-6 (ng/mL) 1.60 (0.19) 1.77(0.17) 1.96 (0.26) 1.73 (0.26)
hsCRP (ng/mL) 2.31 (0.32) 1.61 (0.26)* 2.91 (2.38) 1.65 (2.43)
  1. Data are presented as mean (SEM). TNF-α: tumor necrosis factor-alpha; IL: interleukin; hsCRP: high sensitivity C-reactive protein
  2. *p < 0.05 compared to the corresponding pre-intervention (Paired t-test)