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Table 5 Risk of dementia in relation to the top 15 commonly used TCMs

From: Association of traditional Chinese medicine therapy and the risk of dementia in patients with hypertension: a nationwide population-based cohort study

TCM name Crude HR (95% CI) Adjusted HRj (95% CI)
Tian-Ma-Gou-Teng-Yin a,c,d,e,f,g,h,i 0.77 (0.68–0.86) 0.82 (0.76–0.95)k
Dan-Shen a,d,e,f,g,h,i 0.71 (0.61–0.83) 0.80 (0.69–0.92)k
Gou-Teng-San 0.78 (0.65–0.92) 0.90 (0.74–1.07)
Gou-Teng 0.75 (0.61–0.90) 0.89 (0.75–1.08)
Xia-Ku-Cao 0.70 (0.56–0.86) 0.79 (0.60–1.02)
Zhi-Bai-Di-Huang-Wan 0.88 (0.68–1.10) 0.97 (0.76–1.23)
Da-Huang 0.89 (0.67–1.15) 0.92 (0.70–1.20)
Xue-Fu-Zhu-Yu-Tang 0.82 (0.67–0.99) 0.91 (0.75–1.21)
Chuan-Niu-Xi e,f,i 0.73 (0.58–0.92) 0.79 (0.62–0.98)k
Ge-Gen a,b,f,g,h,i 0.62 (0.43–0.79) 0.65 (0.52–0.83)k
Qi-Ju-Di-Huang-Wan 0.87 (0.68–1.12) 0.85 (0.66–1.09)
San-Qi 0.85 (0.66–1.10) 0.89 (0.69–1.19)
Tian-Ma 0.98 (0.79–1.22) 0.96 (0.77–1.19)
Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San a,b,i 0.70 (0.54–0.91) 0.79 (0.64–0.98)k
Jue-Ming-Zi a,e,h,i 0.57 (0.41–0.80) 0.68 (0.49–0.96)k
  1. HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. Potential therapeutic effects of the most promising TCMs:
  3. aReduces β-amyloid protein or its toxicity
  4. bReduces Tau protein or its abnormal phosphorylation
  5. cInhibits NMDA receptor
  6. dInhibits acetylcholinesterase
  7. eAnti-inflammatory
  8. fAntioxidant activity
  9. gAnti-apoptosis
  10. hNeuroprotective effects
  11. iMedicinal benefits in vascular risk factors
  12. jModel adjusted for age, gender, urbanization level, monthly income, and CCI scores
  13. kPromising TCMs that were significantly related to the lower risk of dementia