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Table 1 Characteristics of the included studies

From: The effects of music intervention on burn patients during treatment procedures: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

  Sample
(treatment / control)
Age Gender
(male/female)
TBSA(A) %
(range)
Procedure Interventions Duration of music Measurement tools(D)
Technique(B) Music Selection Intervention
description(C)
Control Other
Miller et al. (1992) [43] 17 (9/8) 40.9/27.8 (mean treatment/control) 16 M, 1 F 1–39% Dressing change Muralvision Recorded music Investigator-selected music Placebo effect Medication During procedure MGPQ, STAI
Robb et al. (1995) [28] 20 (10/10) 8–20 N/A N/A During preoperative period MAR Recorded music Self-selected music Usual care Medication Before and during procedure STAIC
Fratianne et al. (2001) [26] 25 7–83 16 M, 9 F 1–43% Debridement MBI & MAE Live music Patient’s preferred music Usual care Medication Before, during and after procedure WBFRS, VAS, TOMRI
Haythronthwaite et al. (2001) [44] 42 43.6 (mean) 32 M, 10 F 3–65% Dressing change Music distraction Recorded music Self-selected music Sensory focusing, usual care Medication 20 min before and during procedure 11-LS, BDI, Burn-CSQ
Ferguson et al. (2004) [4] 11 (5/6) 18–75 8 M, 3 F 7–50% Range of motion Music relaxation Recorded music Self-selected music Usual care Exercise During procedure VAS, STAIC, H-PCMS
Chen Shujuan et al. (2005) [39] 40 (20/20) 23–54 40 M 12–49% Debridement process Music medicine Recorded music Investigator-selected music Usual care No Twice a day for 30 min each time; 30 days for a course of treatment HAMA, HRSD
Whitehead-Pleaux et al. (2006) [29] 14 (8/6) 6–16 5 M, 9 F N/A Dressing change Music therapy Live music Self-selected music Verbal interaction No During procedure NAPI, WBFRS, FT
Lin Huiting et al. (2007) [36] 40 (20/20) 20–55 40 M 13–50% Debridement process Music medicine Recorded music Patient’s preferred music Usual care No During procedure VAS
Tan et al. (2010) [24] 29 8–71 24 M, 5 F 3–40% Debridement process MBI & MAE Live music and recorded music Patients’ music preferences Usual care Medication Before, during and after procedure VAS, MTIS
Liu Chenyuan et al. (2010) [22] 120 (60/60) 8–86 69 M, 51 F N/A Dressing change Music medicine Recorded music Patient’s preferred music Usual care No 20 min before and during procedure VAS, STAI
Liang Wanling et al. (2010) [42] 62 (31/31) 17–50 45 M, 17 F N/A Isolation area Music medicine Recorded music Self-selected music by patient/ family Usual care No Patient-selected music played for 1 h at 7:00 and 17:00 SAS, SDS
Yang Yong (2011) [38] 46 (23/23) 36 (mean) 26 M, 20 F N/A During hospitalization Music medicine Recorded music Self-selected music from list Usual care No Twice a day for 20–30 min each time VAS, SDS
Zhang Qian et al. (2012) [23] 60 (30/30) 19–50 29 M, 31 F 4–5% Cold therapy Music medicine Recorded music Investigator-selected music Usual care Cryotherapy During procedure VAS, STAI
Jiang Mingzhu (2013) [41] 64 (32/32) 19–63 43 M, 21 F Ocular During hospitalization Music medicine Recorded music Investigator-selected music Usual care No At 9:00 and 15:00 each day for 30–60 min each time SAS
Ren Yue et al. (2014) [37] 72 (36/36) N/A N/A 20–60% Dressing change Music medicine Recorded music Nurse-selected music Usual care Medication 15 min before and during procedure SAS
Zhou Tao (2014) [40] 42 (21/21) 47.2/45.1 (mean treatment/control) 23 M, 19 F N/A Daily nursing care Music medicine Recorded music Investigator-selected music Usual care No Before and during procedure SAS, SDS
Najafi et al. (2015) [25] 100 (50/50) 31.08/31.18 (mean treatment/control) 62 M, 38 F 6–48% During hospitalization Music intervention Recorded music Patient’s preferred music Usual care Medication Music intervention was offered once a day (20 min) for 3 consecutive days VAS
  1. Abbreviations: MGPQ McGill Pain Questionnaire (including PPI and PRI; PPI Present pain intensity, PRI Pain rating index), WBFRS Wong/Baker Faces Rating Scale, NAPI The Nursing Assessment of Pain Index, STAI The Spielberger’s State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, BDI The Beck Depression Inventory, VAS Visual analog scale, HAMA Hamilton Anxiety Scale, HRSD Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, 11-LS 11-point Likert scales, STAIC The State-Trait Anxiety Index for Children, FT The Fear Thermometer, TOMRI Trippett Objective Muscle Relaxation Inventory, MTIS The Muscle Tension Inventory Scale, H-PCMS Hewlett-Packard Component Monitoring System, SAS Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, SDS Self-Rating Depression Scale
  2. (A) TBSA: Total body surface area. (B) Techniques. Muralvision: A distraction-relaxation music therapy technique combining video or pictures with music for distraction. MAR (music-assisted relaxation): This method includes music listening, deep diaphragmatic breathing, progressive muscle relaxation, and imagery. MBI (music-based imagery): The MBI component occurred in the patient’s room for 15 to 30 min before and after the procedure and provided relaxing and safe experiences to the patient through music listening. MAE (musical alternate engagement): The MAE intervention was used to provide more physically engaging activities and participatory musical tasks during dressing changes in the treatment area. (C) Intervention descriptionMusic intervention form (music medicine or operational process);Technique introduction (if the techniques of music intervention has been introduced or not); Procedure description (Start time, End time, operational process); Materials and Settings (Instruments, stereo equipment, environment); Music characteristics (style, genre, tempo, volume, et al.). (D) Measurement tools