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Table 1 The characteristics of the included 70 studies

From: The quality of reporting of randomized controlled trials of electroacupuncture for stroke

Included Trials Publicati-on language Type of stroke Study designs Sample size calculation No. of Participants (male/female); age(y) Course of disease Interventions(n)Drug/dosage Course of treatment
Trial Control Trial Control
Cao 2012 [14] Chinese infarction RCT No 40(22/18); 57.5 ± 9.8 40(24/16); 57.2 ± 9.5 <3d electro-scalp-body-Ac WCTs* (general supportive care, antiplatelet agents, neuroprotective agents, treatment of acute complications) 4w
Chen 2001 [15] English infarction RCT No 21(14/7); Mean 64.8 16(10/6); Mean 66.1 <3d electro-scalp-body-Ac + WCTs# WCTs*(specialized care) 4w
Chen 2010 [16] Chinese infarction RCT No 40 (27/13); Mean 54.4 38(28/10); Mean 55.4 ≤7d electro-body-Ac + WCTs# WCTs* (general supportive care, antiplatelet agents, anticoagulants, neuroprotective agents) 4w
Chen C L (Unpublished Master’s thesis, 2008) [17] Chinese infarction ICH RCT No 32(20/12); 50–75 32(18/14); 50–75 <6 m electro-body-Ac + WCTs# Ac + WCTs* (general supportive care, specialized care, stroke rehabilitation) 4w
Dong 2011 [18] Chinese infarction ICH RCT No 75(45/30); Mean 67 75(48/27); Mean 65 <2w electro-body-Ac + WCTs# WCTs* (, stroke rehabilitation) 10d
Er 2010 [19] Chinese infarction ICH RCT No 30(16/14); Mean 54.2 30(18/12); Mean 56.1 1 m–3 m electro-body-Ac + WCTs# WCTs* (stroke rehabilitation) 6w
Fu 2010 [20] Chinese infarction RCT No 80(41/39); Mean 62.8 80(43/37); Mean 63.3 <1 m electro-body-Ac + WCTs# WCTs* (general supportive care, antiplatelet agents aspirin 0.1 g po qd, treatment of acute complications, stroke rehabilitation) 4w
Gao 2012 [21] Chinese infarction RCT No 82(45/37); Mean 62.4 78(42/36); Mean 62.7 3–74d electro-scalp-body-Ac + WCTs# WCTs* (antiplatelet agents aspirin 0.1 g po qd,) 4w
Gong 2008 [22] Chinese infarction; ICH RCT No 32 (15/17); Mean 52 31(16/15); Mean 51.4 Mean 36–38d electro-body-Ac + WCTs# WCTs*(stroke rehabilitation) 6w
Gosman-Hedstrom 1998 [23] English infarction RCT No 37(20/17); Mean 76.1 33(9/24); Mean 76.9 <7d electro-scalp-body-Ac + WCTs# WCTs*(stroke rehabilitation) 4w
Gosman-Hedstrom 1998 [23] English infarction RCT No 37(20/17); Mean 76.1 34(17/17); Mean 79 <7d electro-scalp-body-Ac + WCTs# Sham Ac + WCTs* (stroke rehabilitation) 10w
Guo 2009 [24] Chinese infarction RCT No 30(17/13); Mean 56.3 30(21/9); Mean 55.6 <7d electro-body-Ac + WCTs# WCTs* (antiplatelet agents aspirin 0.3 g po qd, a week later recuced to 0.1 g po qd, stroke rehabilitation) 14d
Hopwood 2008 [25] English Infarction; ICH RCT No 57(19/38); Mean 70.5 48(26/22); Mean 74.4 4–10d electro-scalp-body-Ac Sham Ac 4w
Hsing 2012 [26] English infarction RCT No 35; Mean 50 27; Mean 52 >18 m electro-scalp-Ac Sham Ac 5w
Hsieh 2007 [27] English infarction RCT No 30(12/18); Mean 68.8 33(20/13); Mean 70.7 <2w electro-body-Ac + WCTs# WCTs* (stroke rehabilitation) 4w
Hu 1993 [28] English infarction RCT No 15(15/0); 63.6 ± 6.7 15(13/2); 62.8 ± 8.0 <36 h electro-scalp-body-Ac + WCTs# WCTs* (general supportive care, stroke rehabilitation) 4w
Huang 2008 [29] Chinese infarction RCT No 40(21/19); Mean 63.6 40(20/20); Mean 59.9 14–90d electro-body-Ac + WCTs# WCTs* + ENS 4w
Huang 2011 [30] Chinese infarction ICH RCT No 35(22/13); Mean 63.2 35(19/16); Mean 65.3 Mean 7.3–8.1d electro-scalp-body-Ac Ac 6w
Huang 2012 [31] Chinese infarction RCT No 32(12/20) 66.59 ± 10.482; 26(16/10) 68.92 ± 10.53 <6d electro-body-Ac + WCTs# WCTs* (general supportive care) 4w
Jahansson 1993 [32] English infarction RCT No 38; Mean 76 40; Mean 75 <10d electro-body-Ac + WCTs# WCTs* (stroke rehabilitation) 10w
Jahansson 2001 [33] English infarction RCT Yes 48(29/19); Mean 76 51(25/26); Mean 76 <10d electro-scalp-body-Ac + WCTs# sham Ac + WCTs* (antiplatelet agents, anticoagulants, stroke rehabilitation) 10w
Jin 1999 [34] Chinese infarction RCT No 60; Mean 68 60; Mean 68 <1 m electro-scalp-body-Ac + WCTs# WCTs* (specialized care) 6w
Jiu 2008 [35] Chinese infarction ICH RCT No 40(23/17); Mean 62.7 40(22/18); Mean 63 <2w Electro-body-Ac + WCTs# WCTs* (stroke rehabilitation) 2 m
Lei2013 [36] Chinese infarction ICH RCT No 40(19/21); 48-61 40(25/15); 43–64 4–31 m electro-body-Ac + WCTs# WCTs* (general supportive care, stroke rehabilitation) 4w
Li 2006 [37] Chinese infarction RCT No 52(34/18); 66.8 ± 4.7 50(35/15); 67.1 ± 3.9 <1 m electro-scalp-body-Ac + WCTs# WCTs* (general supportive care) 3w
Li 2011 [38] Chinese infarction RCT No 30(14/16) Mean 54.4 30(13/17) Mean 55.4 <1 m electro-body-Ac + WCTs# WCTs* (treatment of acute complications, stroke rehabilitation) 4w
Li X Z (unpublished Master’s thesis, 2005) [39] Chinese infarction RCT No 35(18/17); Mean 61.5 35(20/15); Mean 59.7 <3d electro-scalp-Ac + WCTs# WCTs* (general supportive care, anticoagulantslow molecular heparin, treatment of acute complications) 10d
Liu 2007 [40] Chinese infarction ICH RCT No 38(25/13); Mean 59.4 37(14/23); Mean 56.4 <2w Electro-body-Ac + WCTs# WCTs* (specialized care, stroke rehabilitation) 3w
Liu 2010 [41] Chinese infarction ICH RCT No 50(32/18); Mean 61 50(35/15); Mean 63 2d–6 m electro-scalp-Ac + WCTs# WCTs* (stroke rehabilitation) 1 m
Long 2004 [42] Chinese infarction ICH RCT No 43(30/13); Mean 60 41(27/14); Mean 62 <7d electro-scalp-body-Ac + WCTs# WCTs* 7w
Luo 2012 [43] Chinese infarction ICH RCT No 10(5/5); Mean 60.5 9(5/4); Mean 62.3 2w–1 m electro-body-Ac + WCTs# WCTs* (stroke rehabilitation) 6w
Lv 2003 [44] Chinese infarction RCT No 29; 52–79 26; 52–79 <5d electro-scalp-body-Ac + WCTs# WCTs* (general supportive care, volume expansion and vasodilators, neuroprotective agents, treatment of acute complications) 1 m
Naeser 1992 [45] English infarction RCT No 10 6 1–3 m electro-scalp-body-Ac Sham Ac 4w
Pei2001 [46] English infarction RCT No 43(28/15); Mean 71.6 43(24/19); Mean 69.3 <7d electro-scalp-body-Ac + WCTs# WCTs* 4w
Peng 2007 [47] Chinese infarction RCT No 40; Mean 54 40; Mean 54 ≤7d electro-body-Ac + WCTs# WCTs* (general supportive care, stroke rehabilitation) 12w
Peng 2009 [48] Chinese infarction ICH RCT No 30; 18–70 30; 18–70 Mean 2–3 m electro-scalp-body-Ac Ac 45d
Qi 2012 [49] Chinese Cerebral vascular disease RCT No 39(20/19); 60.12 ± 6.34 39(19/20); 60.23 ± 6.45 <12 m electro–du-meridian-Ac manual-body-Ac 20d
Sallstrom 1996 [50] English infarction ICH RCT No 26; Median 57 23; Median 58 15–71d electro-scalp-body-Ac + WCTs# WCTs* (stroke rehabilitation) 6w
Sang 2011 [51] Chinese infarction RCT No 40; 38–75 40; 38–75 <7d electro-body-Ac + WCTs# WCTs* (neuroprotective agents cerebrolysin vial 30 ml ivgtt qd, treatment of acute complications) 14d
Schaechter2007 [52] English infarction RCT No 4(3/1); 28–80 4 1–10.2y electro-scalp-body-Ac Sham Ac 10w
Schuler 2005 [53] English infarction RCT No 41; Mean 77.5 40; Mean 78.7 3–35d scalp-body-Ac Sham Ac 4w
Si 1998 [54] English infarction RCT No 20(15/5); 68 ± 10 22(18/4); 67 ± 8 <7d electro-scalp-body-Ac + WCTs# WCTs* (specialized care) 7d
Su 2002 [55] Chinese infarction ICH RCT No 43(27/16); 58 ± 4 40(23/17); 57 ± 5 <12 m electro-body-Ac + WCTs# WCTs* (general supportive care, stroke rehabilitation) 20-30d
Sun 2005 [56] Chinese infarction RCT No 40(27/13) 43(29/14) <12 h electro-scalp-Ac + WCTs# WCTs* (specialized care) 12d
Sun 2012 [57] Chinese infarction RCT No 35(23/12); Mean 57.5 35(17/18); Mean 56 <3d electro-scalp-body-Ac + WCTs# WCTs* (specialized care) 14d
Wang 1998 [58] Chinese infarction RCT No 80; Mean 68 80; Mean 68 Mean 24d electro-scalp-body-Ac + WCTs# WCTs* 20d
Wang 2001 [59] Chinese infarction ICH RCT No 106; 35–80 54; 35–80; <1y Electro-body-Ac Ac 6w
Wang 2003 [60] Chinese infarction ICH RCT No 32; 46–77 32; 46–77 <14d electro-body-Ac + WCTs# WCTs* 20d
Wang 2008 [61] Chinese ICH RCT No 45(30/15); Mean 62 45(29/16); Mean 63 <7d electro-scalp-body-Ac + WCTs# WCTs* (general supportive care, specialized care) 4w
Wang 2009 [62] Chinese infarction Quasi-RCT No 65(33/32); Mean 72.2 50(26/24); Mean 70.1 ≤3d electro-body-Ac + WCTs# ENS + WCTs* (antiplatelet agents aspirin 0.1 g po qd, stroke rehabilitation) 4w
Wang Q (unpublished Master’s thesis, 2009) [63] Chinese infarction RCT Yes 24(15/9); Mean 62.4 22(14/8) Mean 57.1 <2w electro-body-Ac + WCTs# WCTs*(general supportive care) 4w
Wang X W (unpublished Master’s thesis, 2011) [64] Chinese infarction RCT No 31(17/14) Mean 57.4 30(19/11) Mean 60.3 <3d electro-body-Ac + WCTs# WCTs* (general supportive care, antiplatelet agents aspirin 0.1 g po qd, treatment of acute complications) 14d
Wayne 2005 [65] English infarction ICH RCT No 16(12/4); 38–89 17(12/5); 42–69 >6 m electro-scalp-body-Ac Sham Ac 10w
Wei 2008 [66] Chinese infarction ICH RCT No 46(29/17); Mean 59.4 44(23/21); Mean 56.4 2–7d electro-body-Ac + WCTs# WCTs* (general supportive care, specialized care, stroke rehabilitation) 5w
Wong 1999 [67] English infarction ICH RCT No 59(38/21); Mean 60.4 59(42/17); Mean 60.6 <14d electro-body-Ac + WCTs# WCTs* 2w
Wu 2008 [68] Chinese infarction ICH RCT No 30; 46–75 30; 46–75 >1 m electro-body-Ac + WCTs# WCTs* (stroke rehabilitation) 30d
Wu 2009 [69] Chinese infarction RCT No 29(16/13); Mean 56.7 29(17/12); Mean 58.5 <14d electro-body-Ac + WCTs# WCTs* (general supportive care, specialized care, antiplatelet agents aspirin 0.1 g po qd) 14d
Wu 2011 [70] Chinese infarction ICH RCT No 30(18/12) 30(19/11) >3w electro-body-Ac + WCTs# WCTs* (general supportive care, specialized care, stroke rehabilitation) 6w
WuXL 2008 [71] Chinese infarction RCT No 32(20/12); Mean 67.2 29(19/10); Mean 66.6 <7d electro-scalp-body-Ac + WCTs# WCTs* + Ac 3 m
Xue 2007 [72] Chinese infarction; ICH RCT No 18(14/4); Mean 66.1 18(15/3); Mean 64.2 <2w electro-body-Ac + WCTs# WCTs* (stroke rehabilitation) 4w
Yu 2005 [73] Chinese infarction RCT No 16(10/6); 40–76 14(8/6); 40–75 <3d electro-scalp-body-Ac + WCTs# WCTs* (vasodilators, neuroprotective agents) 2w
Yue 2012 [74] Chinese infarction ICH RCT No 33(21/12); Mean 70.4 31(18/13); Mean 69.8 80-163d electro-body-Ac Ac 1 m
Zhang 1995 [75] Chinese infarction RCT No 40(23/17); Mean 65.8 40(22/18); Mean 68.7 <7d electro-scalp-Ac + WCTs# WCTs* (specialized care) 20d
Zhang 2006 [76] Chinese infarction ICH RCT No 32(17/15); Mean 62.7 25(15/10); Mean 64.5 <6 m electro-body-Ac + WCTs# WCTs* + Ac 30d
Zhang 2008 [77] Chinese infarction ICH RCT No 49(26/23) Mean 51.5 49(24/25) Mean 54.7 <2w Electro-body-Ac + WCTs# WCTs* (general supportive care, specialized care, stroke rehabilitation) 2 m
Zhang 2009 [78] Chinese infarction ICH RCT No 30(12/18); Mean 55.7 30(15/15); Mean 58.4 <3y Electro-body-Ac + WCTs# WCTs*(stroke rehabilitation) 1 m
Zhang 2013 [79] Chinese infarction Quasi-RCT No 45(27/18); Mean 65.5 45(30/15); Mean 63.2 <3d electro-scalp-body-Ac + WCTs# WCTs* (general supportive care, specialized care, neuroprotective agents) 4w
Zhang SS (unpublished Master’s thesis, 2009) [80] Chinese infarction RCT No 29(17/12); Mean 62.9 29(16/13); Mean 63.6 <10d electro-body-Ac + WCTs# WCTs* (general supportive care, treatment of acute complications, stroke rehabilitation) 3w
Zhang X, (unpublished Master’s thesis, 2008) [81] Chinese infarction RCT No 60(33/27); 40–80 30(17/13); 40–80 <2w electro-body-Ac + WCTs# WCTs* (general supportive care, antiplatelet agents aspirin 0.1 g po qd, treatment of acute complications, stroke rehabilitation) 2w
Zhao 2005 [82] Chinese infarction ICH RCT No 60(36/24); Mean 63.0 60(31/29); Mean 67.4 <2w electro-scalp-body-Ac + WCTs# WCTs* (general supportive care, specialized care, (treatment of acute complications, stroke rehabilitation) 1 m
Zhu 2012 [83] Chinese infarction ICH RCT No 40; 32–69 40; 32–69 <2w Electro-body-Ac + WCTs# WCTs* (general supportive care, specialized care) 1 m
  1. Ac acupuncture, dday, ICH Intracerebral Hemorrhage, m month, RCT randomizedcontrolledtrial, SA scalp acupuncture, w week, WCTs western conventional treatments, y year. #: the same as the control group; WCT* refer to the combination of needed therapies of the following aspects: (1) General supportive care mainly include: A. airway, ventilatory support and supplemental oxygen, B. cardiac monitoring and treatment, C. temperature, D. blood pressure, E. blood sugar and F. nutrition; (2) Specialized care mainly include a variety of measures to improve cerebral blood circulation (such as antiplatelet agents, anticoagulants, fibrinogen-depleting agents, volume expansion and vasodilators, except thrombolytic agents) and neuroprotective agents; (3) Treatment of acute complications mainly include: A. brain edema and elevated intracranial pressure, B. seizures, C. dysphagia, D. pneumonia, E.voiding dysfunction and urinary tract infections and F. deep vein thrombosis.(4) Stroke rehabilitation