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Table 1 Herbal components of PSR and their implications for stroke treatment

From: Neuroprotective effect of a novel Chinese herbal decoction on cultured neurons and cerebral ischemic rats

Component of PSR Implications for stroke treatmenta
1. Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bunge (Huangqi) A component of Buyang Huanwu Decoctionb (BYHWD), Sheng Yu Decoction and BNG-1 [22, 23, 27]; used with Honghua to treat stroke patients [17]; its isolates, calycosin and formononetin, were neuroprotective in cerebral ischemic rats [40, 81]
2. Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Danshen) A component of Hua Tan Tong Luo formula and BNG-1 [2729]; polysaccharide extract and active isolates, lithospermic acid, salvianolic acid B, cryptotanshinone, tanshinone I and tanshinones IIA-B, could reduce damages caused by cerebral ischemia in rodents [41, 8285]
3. Paeonia lactiflora Pall. (Chishao) A component of BYHWD [22] and Nao-Shuan-Tong [30]; showed proliferative effects on injured rat peripheral neurons and Schwann cells [31, 32]; an isolate, paeoniflorin, was neuroprotective in cerebral ischemic rats [86]
4. Cassia obtusifolia L. (Juemingzi) Used for hyperlipidemia treatment [44]; showed neuroprotective effects in hippocampal neurons and in cell and animal models of Parkinson’s disease in mice [33, 34]; an isolate, chrysophanol, showed neuroprotective effect in ischemic mice [87]
5. Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. (Chuanxiong) A component of BYHW, Sheng Yu, and Xiaoxuming Decoctions [2224]; butylidenephthalide, ferulic acid and ligustilide isolated from Chaunxiong were neuroprotective in rodent cells and ischemic rats [3638, 88]
6. Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels (Danggui) A component of BYHWD and Sheng Yu Decoction [22, 23]; ferulic acid and ligustilide isolated from Danggui showed neuroprotection in rodent cells and ischemic rats [3638]
7. Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. (Gancao) A component of BNG-1, Xiaoxuming, Gualou Guizhi, and Wen Dan Decoctions [2427]; used to treat diabetic acute ischemic stroke [89]; liquiritin, a major constituent, enhanced the neurotrophic effect of NGF [90], showed protection against Aβ-induced toxicity in rat cortical neurons and ischemic mice [35, 91]
  1. aExamples and references shown are selections highlighted by the authors
  2. bBuyang Huanwu, Sheng Yu, Xiaoxuming, Gualou Guizhi, and Wen Dan Decoctions, BNG-1, Hua Tan Tong Luo formula and Nao-Shuan-Tong are herbal mixtures that have been used to treat stroke patients in China
  3. Neuroprotection data obtained from in vitro and animal studies are written in italics
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