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Table 4 Possible antimicrobial mechanisms of minerals in MR and AV drugs

From: Antimicrobial potential of two traditional herbometallic drugs against certain pathogenic microbial species

Mineral Mechanism of action
Pyrite/ chalcopyrite Spontaneously generate hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hydroxyl radicals when they are placed in water. Caused to degrade ribosomal RNA and DNA [45].
Sulfur present in soluble forms with water Could interact with the oxygen radicals in the drug-microbe aqueous mixture which may in turn be transformed into pentathionic acid (H2S5O6), which could be a source of the antibacterial activity of water based broth preparations [46, 47].
Oxides (zinc, copper and iron oxides) Could act as sources that create hydrogen peroxide oxide radicals which contribute to the inhibition of both gram positive and negative bacterial species [48].