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Table 2 Epidemiology and characteristics of traditional medicine use stratified by diabetes and diabetes risk status; CKD-AFRIKA

From: Traditional medicine practices among community members with diabetes mellitus in Northern Tanzania: an ethnomedical survey

  Diabetes Absent; n = 436 (95 % CI) With Diabetes; n = 45 (%, 95 % CI)
Low risk (n = 352) Increased risk (n = 84)
Prevalence
 …of TM Use 60.3 % (48.9–70.7) 56.7 % (43.4–69.2) 77.1 % (58.5–89.0)
 …of concurrent TM and Biomedicine Use 4.9 % (2.7–8.9) 2.6 % (0.8–7.6) 37.6 % (20.5–58.4)
Incidence of TM Use (per year)
 1–5 times 47.2 % (38.8–55.7) 32.0 % (19.9–47.1) 45.3 % (27.8–64.0)
 6–10 times 7.7 % (4.6–12.6) 17.0 % (7.8–33.0) 5.2 % (1.5–16.1)
>10 times 5.4 % (3.1–9.4) 7.1 % (2.6–18.0) 26.7 % (10.2–53.8)
Reasons for TM Use
 More Effective 83.3 % (74.6–89.4) 81.4 % (62.8–91.9) 79.6 % (40.4–95.7)
 Lower Cost 60.1 % (48.2–70.9) 64.5 % (46.4–79.3) 55.2 % (32.2–76.2)
 Easier to Access 69.9 % (61.0–77.6) 61.6 % (45.0–75.8) 59.1 % (30.7–82.5)
 Safer 43.4 % (31.6–56.1) 39.1 % (25.8–54.2) 39.5 % (20.4–62.5)
 More Traditional/Religious 30.4 % (23.4–38.4) 29.7 % (18.0–44.8) 42.0 % (24.1–62.3)
Modes of Healthcare Access
 Medical Doctors 97.3 % (93.4–98.9) 97.2 % (85.3–99.5) 90.5 % (58.6–98.5)
 Family and Elders 50.7 % (38.0–63.4) 55.4 % (34.4–74.6) 69.0 % (42.8–86.9)
 Traditional Healers 5.6 % (2.7–11.0) 9.9 % (3.0–28.2) 22.9 % (8.2–49.7)
 Pharmacists 19.9 % (11.9–31.3) 22.0 % (10.5–40.5) 10.6 % (3.9–25.5)
 Herbal Vendors 3.9 % (1.1–12.2) 11.4 % (5.7–21.5) 5.1 % (1.5–16.1)
 Friends/Neighbors 17.5 % (10.4–27.8) 16.7 % (9.7–27.4) 5.2 % (1.7–15.3)
TM Use
 …for Symptomatic Ailments 57.3 % (49.2–65.0) 45.1 % (28.8–62.6) 79.1 % (60.8–90.2)
 …for Chronic Diseases 27.7 % (19.1–38.0) 24.5 % (12.9–41.5) 57.0 % (29.4–80.9)
 …for Reproductive/Fertility Ailments 22.8 % (14.6–33.9) 19.7 % (8.8–38.5) 49.5 % (28.2–70.9)
 …for Malaria/Febrile Illnesses 56.7 % (43.1–69.4) 70.9 % (58.2–80.9) 59.2 % (28.7–84.0)
 …for Spiritual/traditional uses 8.6 % (4.5–15.7) 7.0 % (2.2–20.2) 9.4 % (3.5–22.8)
 …for Neurologic Illnesses 19.5 % (11.3–31.4) 19.6 % (10.2–34.5) 38.2 % (18.9–62.2)
 …for Urogenital Conditions 15.7 % (9.8–24.4) 16.7 % (8.2–31.0) 26.0 % (10.6–51.1)
 …for Cancers 14.7 % (6.6–29.7) 9.0 % (3.0–23.8) 22.9 % (8.0–50.6)
 …for Disease Prevention 5.9 % (3.3–10.3) 0.7 % (0.1–5.8) 11.4 % (3.0–34.9)
 …for Worms/Parasites 11.1 % (6.9–17.4) 15.9 % (9.3–25.9) 22.0 % (8.7–45.7)
Modes of TM Use
 Mix with water 83.0 % (77.4–87.4) 85.7 % (75.2–92.3) 79.8 % (54.6–92.9)
 Drink as a tea 61.1 % (52.7–68.9) 47.5 % (31.0–64.5) 62.7 % (35.0–83.9)
 Drink as a soup 46.1 % (36.6–55.8) 35.2 % (25.5–46.4) 65.5 % (38.3–85.3)
 Chew from the plant 57.5 % (46.4–67.9) 47.3 % (31.9–63.3) 58.3 % (41.6–73.3)
 Drink with milk 22.8 % (15.7–31.9) 15.7 % (7.5–30.0) 39.2 % (19.2–63.6)
 Bath 26.2 % (17.7–37.0) 30.3 % (20.7–42.0) 45.0 % (19.3–73.8)
 Inhalation 33.9 % (26.5–42.1) 39.2 % (26.8–53.1) 42.5 % (24.0–63.3)
 Powders 17.4 % (9.7–29.2) 22.9 % (11.8–39.7) 25.3 % (9.9–51.0)
 As foods to be eaten 2.4 % (0.8–6.8) 7.7 % (2.0–25.5) 4.2 % (1.1–14.9)
 Pill/Vitamin form 0.6 % (0.2–1.7) 1.4 % (0.3–6.7) 2.4 % (0.4–13.0)
 Lotions/Creams 5.3 % (2.9–9.5) 5.8 % (2.1–15.1) 21.0 % (5.9–53.2)
  1. Chronic Diseases: Hypertension, Heart problems, Diabetes, or Body Swelling
  2. Reproductive/Fertility Ailments: Sexual Arousal/Virility, Menstrual Problems, Pregnancy Termination, or Fertility/Impotence
  3. Neurologic illnesses: Epilepsy, Mental Confusion, or Depression
  4. Spiritual/Traditional: Peace of mind/Ward off curses, Protection from ‘evil eyes’, Unexplained Illnesses, or ‘To Improve Luck’
  5. Symptomatic Ailments: Increase Strength, Constipation, Increase energy, Digestion/Stomach problems, Fatigue, Arthritis/joint pains, Flu/Cold symptoms, Headaches, or Skin problems
  6. Urogenital: Kidney problems or Urinary problems