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Table 2 Top 20 herbal ingredients contained in the PFS taken by consumers, according to “body weight” reasona

From: Usage of Plant Food Supplements (PFS) for weight control in six European countries: results from the PlantLIBRA PFS Consumer Survey 2011-2012

PFS taken by those who responded “body weight”b PFS taken by those who did not respond “body weight”c
Herbal ingredients consumed PFS (n) % (CI 95 %) Herbal ingredients consumed PFS (n) % (CI 95 %)
Cynara scolymus (artichoke) 72 6.1 (4.7-7.4) Ginkgo biloba (ginkgo) 191 3.1 (2.6-3.5)
Camellia sinensis (green tea) 37 3.1 (2.1-4.1) Oenothera biennis (evening primrose) 184 2.9 (2.5-3.4)
Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) 34 2.9 (1.9-3.8) Panax ginseng (ginseng) 160 2.6 (2.2-2.9)
Vitis vinifera (grapevine) 23 1.9 (1.2-2.7) Aloe vera (aloe) 132 2.1 (1.8-2.5)
Ananas comosus (pineapple) 21 1.8 (1.0-2.5) Valeriana officinalis (valerian) 123 2.0 (1.6-2.3)
Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) 21 1.8 (1.0-2.5) Cynara scolymus (artichoke) 101 1.6 (1.3-1.9)
Pimpinella anisum (aniseed) 19 1.6 (0.9-2.3) Echinacea purpurea (echinacea) 100 1.6 (1.3-1.9)
Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary) 19 1.6 (0.9-2.3) Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) 98 1.6 (1.3-1.9)
Linum usitatissimum (flax) 17 1.4 (0.8-2.1) Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) 95 1.5 (1.2-1.8)
Vaccinium myrtillus (bilberry) 17 1.4 (0.8-2.1) Glycine max (soy bean) 91 1.5 (1.2-1.8)
Citrus limon (lemon) 15 1.3 (0.6-1.9) Vaccinium myrtillus (bilberry) 83 1.3 (1.0-1.6)
Raphanus sativus (radish) 15 1.3 (0.6-1.9) Echinacea angustifolia (echinacea) 77 1.2 (1.0-1.5)
Urtica dioica (common nettle) 15 1.3 (0.6-1.9) Harpagophytum p. (devil’s claw) 75 1.2 (0.9-1.5)
Zingiber officinale (ginger) 15 1.3 (0.6-1.9) Passiflora incarnata (passionflower) 74 1.2 (0.9-1.5)
Matricaria chamomilla (Hungarian camomile) 15 1.3 (0.6-1.9) Zingiber officinale (ginger) 74 1.2 (0.9-1.5)
Malus pumila (apple) 14 1.2 (0.6-1.8) Allium sativum (garlic) 71 1.1 (0.9-1.4)
Aloe vera (aloe) 13 1.1 (0.5-1.7) Pimpinella anisum (aniseed) 70 1.12 (0.9-1.4)
Equisetum arvense (horsetail) 13 1.1 (0.5-1.7) Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) 67 1.1 (0.8-1.3)
Fucus vesiculosus (kelp) 13 1.1 (0.5-1.7) Oenothera spec (evening primrose) 65 1.0 (0.8-1.3)
Olea europaea (olive tree) 13 1.1 (0.5-1.7) Mentha piperita (peppermint) 64 1.0 (0.8-1.3)
  1. aQuestion asked: For what reason(s)/condition(s) did you take this product? (mark all that apply) - twenty possible options were available. bThose who responded “body weight” i.e. Subsample 1; at least one of the options chosen included “body weight”. cNeither of the options chosen included “body weight”