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Fig. 1 | BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Fig. 1

From: Herbal composition of Cinnamomum cassia, Pinus densiflora, Curcuma longa and Glycyrrhiza glabra prevents atherosclerosis by upregulating p27 (Kip1) expression

Fig. 1

Effect of Kiom-18 extract on VSMC proliferation and early signal transduction. VSMCs cultured in serum-free medium were stimulated with 25 ng/mL PDGF-BB for 24 h, and the effect of various concentrations of Kiom-18 extract (5–50 μg/ml) was monitored. a Optimal densities were determined at 450 nm using the WST-1 assay (n = 4). b The PDGF-induced phosphorylation of PLCγ1, ERK1/2, Akt, p38, and JNK was measured using SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting. β-actin, ERK1/2, Akt, p38, and JNK were used for normalization (n = 3). These results were analyzed using colorimetry (a) and densitometry (b); the values represent the percentage of the control stimulated by PDGF-BB. The values represent the mean ± SEM. Significant differences from the PDGF control (PDGF-stimulated) are shown by **p < 0.01

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