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Table 4 Lipid profiles, liver function index and serum glucose and insulin levels in overnight-fasted rats

From: The combination of Artemisia princeps Pamp, Leonurus japonicas Houtt, and Gardenia jasminoides Ellis fruit attenuates the exacerbation of energy, lipid, and glucose by increasing hepatic PGC-1α expression in estrogen-deficient rats

  Control (n = 12) APP (n = 12) APP + LJH (n = 12) APP + LJH + GJE(n = 12) Positive-control (n = 12)
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 109.9 ± 10.3a 101.3 ± 10.4ab 104.5 ± 10.4ab 108.5 ± 10.9a 99.4 ± 9.5b
LDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 56.3 ± 6.4a 50.7 ± 5.7b 51.6 ± 5.8b 53.4 ± 7.4ab 45.2 ± 5.6b
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 32.3 ± 3.3b 34.2 ± 3.7ab 35.7 ± 3.8ab 36.9 ± 3.6a 38.3 ± 3.7a
Triglyceride (mg/dL) 107.1 ± 10.4a 81.4 ± 8.8b 86.1 ± 9.8b 80.3 ± 8.1b 79.6 ± 8.5b
Aspartate aminotransferase (IU/L) 123 ± 9a 111 ± 12ab 109 ± 14b 90 ± 15c 87 ± 14c
Alanine aminotransferase (IU/L) 39.8 ± 4.6 41.5 ± 5.9 40.1 ± 6.8 35.6 ± 5.2 35.5 ± 5.5
Glucose (mg/dL) 100.3 ± 11.4a 87.5 ± 10.4b 92.8 ± 11.3ab 93.0 ± 10.8ab 94.9 ± 10.7ab
Insulin (ng/mL) 1.87 ± 0.28a 1.29 ± 0.25b 1.30 ± 0.24b 1.15 ± 0.22c 1.14 ± 0.25c
HOMA-IR 10.4 ± 1.8a 6.3 ± 0.8bc 6.7 ± 0.8b 5.9 ± 0.7c 6.0 ± 0.7c
  1. Control, OVX rats fed a high-fat diet (OVX-CON) with 2 % dextrin; APP, OVX rats fed a high fat diet with 2 % Artemisia princeps Pamp water extract; LJH, OVX rats fed a high fat diet with 2 % Leonurus japonicas Houtt water extract; GJE, OVX rats fed a high fat diet with 2 % Gardenia jasminoides Ellis water extract; positive-control, OVX rats fed a high fat diet with 30 μg/kg body weight 17β-estradiol + 2 % dextrose. HOMA-IR, homeostasis model assessment estimate of insulin resistance. Values are means ± SD
  2. a,b,c Significantly different among all groups by Tukey test at p < 0.05