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Table 2 Factors associated with the use of contraindicated herbal medicines in pregnancy

From: Safety classification of herbal medicines used in pregnancy in a multinational study

  No use of CI herbals Use of CI herbals Total Adjusted Odds Ratio (95 % CI)
  N % N %   
Age (continuous)       0.95 (0.90–1.01)
Employment status       
 Student 183 77.2 54 22.8 237 1.05 (0.87–1.25)
 Housewife 163 79.9 41 20.1 204 1.45 (1.18–1.79)
 HCP 209 80.7 50 19.3 259 1.07 (0.55–2.08)
 Job seeker 68 82.9 14 17.1 82 1.00 (0.39–2.58)
 None 81 79.4 21 20.6 102 1.02 (0.67–1.54)
 Employed other sector 1197 80.2 296 19.8 1493 Reference
Education level
 Primary 66 85.7 11 14.3 77 0.90 (0.43–1.85)
 High School 441 83.8 85 16.2 526 Reference
 University 1166 77.8 332 22.2 1498 1.97 (1.60–2.44)
 Other 230 82.7 48 17.3 278 1.18 (1.00–1.39)
Folic acid use before and/or during pregnancy
 Yes 1819 80.1 453 19.9 2272 Reference
 No 84 78.5 23 21.5 107 1.44 (1.14–1.82)
Alcohol use after awareness of pregnancy
 Yes 393 76.3 122 23.7 515 1.48 (1.20–1.80)
 Can’t remember 20 71.4 8 28.6 28 1.48 (0.82–2.66)
 No 1490 81.2 345 18.8 1835 Reference
Recommendation source
 Informal (family, internet, etc) 780 89.2 94 10.8 874 Reference
 Other 24 88.8 3 11.2 27 0.97 (0.29–3.26)
 Health care personnel 362 73.7 129 26.3 491 3.02 (2.65–3.57)
 Both Informal and health care personnel 435 76.2 136 24.8 571 2.56 (2.35–2.78)
  1. "Bold data" highlights statistically significant data