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Table 1 Baseline demographic characteristics

From: Long term follow-up of cervical intervertebral disc herniation inpatients treated with integrated complementary and alternative medicine: a prospective case series observational study

Variables Long term follow-up group (n = 117) Non-long term follow-up group (n = 48)
n (%) mean (sd) n (%) mean (sd)
Age (years)   45.4 ± 11.4   41.5 ± 10.4
Gender, male 54 (46.2)   25 (52.1)  
Smoking status
 Non-smoker 62 (53.5)   24 (50.0)  
 Current smoker 33 (28.5)   14 (29.2)  
 Past smoker 21 (18.1)   10 (20.8)  
Drinking
 No 14 (12.1)   3 (6.3)  
 Yes 102 (87.9)   45 (93.8)  
Regular physical activity
 No 52 (44.8)   21 (43.8)  
 Yes 64 (55.2)   27 (56.3)  
Body mass index   22.8 ± 3   22.8 ± 3.1
Previous neck pain episode
 No 93 (79.5)   40 (83.3)  
 Yes 24 (20.5)   8 (16.7)  
Comorbid illnessa, yes 65 (55.6)   27 (56.3)  
Radiating arm pain
 None 24 (20.7)   8 (16.7)  
 Unilateral 67 (57.8)   29 (60.4)  
 Bilateral 25 (21.6)   11 (22.9)  
Sensory loss 32 (42.7)   17 (58.6)  
ROM restrictionb
 No 58 (49.6)   27 (56.3)  
 Yes 59 (50.4)   21 (43.8)  
Positive physical exam resultc     
 No 31 (26.5)   19 (39.6)  
 Yes 86 (73.5)   29 (60.4)  
Previous treatment for current episode
 Epidural injectionsd 19 (16.4)   6 (12.5)  
 Analgesic medications 56 (48.3)   21 (43.8)  
 CAM 25 (21.6)   13 (27.1)  
 Surgery 1 (0.9)   2 (4.2)  
Duration of current episode (days)   210.1 ± 404.9   302.4 ± 557.6
 Less than 1 month 34 (29.6)   11 (22.9)  
 Between 1 and 6 months 54 (47.0)   22 (45.8)  
 Over 6 months 27 (23.5)   15 (31.3)  
Recommendation for surgery at other institutione
 No 88 (75.2)   -  
 Yes 29 (24.8)   1 (100)  
NRS, neck pain (0–10)   5.9 ± 2.3   5.8 ± 2.4
NRS, radiating arm pain (0–10)   4.8 ± 3.1   5.4 ± 2.7
Neck disability index (0–100)   40.6 ± 15.9   40.2 ± 15.2
  1. ROM Range of motion; CAM Complementary and alternative medicine; NRS Numeric rating scale
  2. aAny self-reported gastritis, tuberculosis, poliomyelitis, cardiovascular disease, uterine myoma, or hepatitis B carrier
  3. bRegarded no ROM restriction if (a) cervical flexion > 30o at admission, (b) cervical extension > 30o at admission, (c) left cervical rotation angle = right cervical rotation angle at admission, and (d) left cervical side-bending angle = right cervical side-bending angle at admission were all satisfied. Regarded ROM restriction if any of the above-mentioned conditions were not met
  4. cRegarded positive physical exam result if any exam of (a) compression test, (b) distraction test, (c) Valsalva test, (d) Spurling test was positive at admission. Regarded negative physical exam result if all exams were negative. If any exam was uncheckable due to pain or functional disability, it was considered to be a positive test result
  5. dLocal anesthetics such as lidocaine, steroids, and anti-adhesion adjuvants were used
  6. eEver-recommendation for surgery at other conventional institution before current admission