Skip to main content

Table 2 Sample characteristics (n = 309)

From: Development and Psychometric Properties of the Yoga Self-Efficacy Scale (YSES)

Characteristic  
Age (mean, S.D.) 51 (13)
Female (n, %) 253 (82)
Race (n, %)  
 White 262 (85)
 Black 7 (2)
 Asian 15 (5)
 Some other race or missing 25 (8)
Hispanic, Latino or Spanish in origin (n, %) 15 (5)
Annual income (U.S. dollars) (n, %)  
 Less than $24,999 34 (12)
 25000-44999 50 (16)
 50000-74999 48 (16)
 75000-99999 46 (15)
 100000 or more 78 (25)
 Decline to answer 35 (11)
Education (n, %)  
 High school graduate/GED/ or less 6 (2)
 Vocational/technical school 8 (3)
 Associate degree/some college 31 (10)
 Bachelor’s degree 88 (29)
 Advanced degree 158 (51)
Most frequent yoga style practiced (n, %)  
 Krishnamacharya or Viniyoga (target yoga) (%) 159 (52)
 Hatha 53 (17)
 Anusara 8 (3)
 Ashtanga 9 (3)
 Kripalu 4 (1)
 Bikram 1 (<1)
 Kundalini 1 (<1)
 Other 31 (10)
Certified yoga teacher (n, %) 174 (56)
On average, how many times a week do you practice yoga? (mean, S.D.) 5 (2)
When you practice yoga, on average how many minutes? (mean, S.D.) 54 (20)
How long have you been practicing yoga? (n, %)  
 More than 3 years 53 (80)
 3 years or less 246 (17)
Health Self-Efficacya (mean, S.D.) 32.96 (4.52)
Health-related Quality of Lifeb (mean, S.D.) 3.93 (0.53)
Social Desirability Biasc (mean, S.D.) 1.17 (1.28)
  1. aPossible range: 8 – 40
  2. bPossible range: 1 – 5
  3. cPossible range: 0–5