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Table 3 Change in drug prescriptions and cost of drugs during 90 days before/after the first observed inpatient visit with diagnosis F43 for the integrative care and conventional care cohorts

From: Usage and cost of first-line drugs for patients referred to inpatient anthroposophic integrative care or inpatient conventional care for stress-related mental disorders—a register based study

  Integrative Care (N = 161) Conventional Care (N = 1571) Conventional-Integrative Conventional-Integrative
  Change from 90-days before to 90-days after index visit Difference in change between groups Effect Size (Cohen’s d)
DDDs/patient
ATC-N05A −0.3 (−1.1 to 0.6), p = 0.518 0.7 (−0.2 to 1.6), p = 0.147 1.0 (−0.3 to 1.5), p = 0.515 0.1 (−0.1 to 0.2)
ATC-N05B −11.5 (−19.7 to −3.2), p = 0.003 16.9 (12.4 to 21.3), p < 0.001 28.3 (14.2 to 42.4), p < 0.001 0.3 (0.2 to 0.5)
ATC-N05C −2.1 (−3.6 to −0.6), p = 0.004 6.8 (5.5 to 8.1), p < 0.001 8.9 (4.8 to 13.0), p < 0.001 0.4 (0.2 to 0.5)
ATC-N06A −2.1 (−7.8 to 3.6), p = 0.473 10.4 (7.8 to 13.0), p < 0.001 12.5 (4.2 to 20.8), p < 0.001 0.2 (0.1 to 0.4)
Cost/patient (EUR)
ATC-N05A 5.3 (−11.9 to 22.6), p = 0.542 14.5 (7.7 to 21.4), p < 0.001 9.2 (−12.9 to 31.3), p = 0.415 0.1 (−0.1 to 0.2)
ATC-N05B −2.4 (−4.1 to −0.7), p = 0.003 3.2 (2.3 to 4.2), p < 0.001 5.6 (2.6 to 8.7), p < 0.001 0.3 (0.1 to 0.5)
ATC-N05C −2.2 (−3.5 to −0.8), p = 0.001 2.9 (2.1 to 3.7), p < 0.001 5.1 (2.4 to 7.7), p < 0.001 0.3 (0.2 to 0.5)
ATC-N06A −9.2 (−20.6 to 2.3), p = 0.058 13.0 (9.1 to 16.9), p < 0.001 22.2 (9.4 to 34.9), p < 0.001 0.3 (0.1 to 0.4)
  1. DDD, Defined daily dose. EUR, euro. Drug categories according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification system: N05A, antipsychotics; N05B, anxiolytics; N05C, hypnotics and sedatives; and N06A, antidepressants. Average (95 % confidence interval), p values; Analyses by t-tests (two tailed). Cohen’s d: small 0.2, medium 0.5, large 0.8