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Fig. 5 | BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Fig. 5

From: Inhibitory effect of Phyllanthus urinaria L. extract on the replication of lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B virus in vitro

Fig. 5

Effects of the extract on intracellular signaling. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR was used to determine the levels of a COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-6, b IFN-β, OAS, and PKR, and c RIG-I, TLR-3, MyD88, and TRAF-6 mRNA. Total RNA was isolated from mock-, HBV WT-transfected, HBV WT-transfected/extract-treated (100 μg/mL), or extract-only-treated (100 μg/mL) HepG2 cells at 3 days post-transfection and subjected to real-time RT-PCR. Data represent the mean level of mRNA expression from three independent experiments. Statistical significance was evaluated using Student’s t-test. *p < 0.05 and **p < 0.01, relative to the respective mock-, untreated HBV WT, treated HBV WT, or extract-only-treated HepG2 cells. d ERK1/2 and JNK activation and COX-2 protein expression in mock-, HBV WT- transfected, HBV WT-transfected/extract-treated (100 μg/mL), or extract-only-treated (100 μg/mL) HepG2 cells

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